Turkana Religion [on west side of lake Turkana]

p. 16 medicine-man

initiation by God of a male into becoming a medicine-man : "It is God who singles out the future medicine-men and takes them away for up to a month or so. When they reappear they tell ... how they were called by God and then were taken to his wonderful homestead ... . ... Whilst there they learn all the knowledge and techniques of their profession."

"When a person afflicted with a disease, with barrenness or some other problem consults a medicine-man, the latter ... must commune with God first. This is done in sleep, for God comes and talks to him in dreams. In this way God informs him about the proper treatment, which is carried out the next day. Through his communication with God a medicine man can also be told that a certain man is about to be attacked by some disease".

p. 17 female practitioner

initiation by God’s spirit of a female into becoming a female practitioner (amuron) : "When she was still very young, God came to her in sleep and said that she should become an amuron, because He had selected her. Later on she was taken away by God’s spirit and stayed between six and eight weeks in a bush near a river without water. There God’s spirit, but also the spirit of a medicine-man who had died long ago, taught her the profession."

pp. 33-34 sacred hills & their spirits

p. 33

"nature spirits .. live in mountains and hills."


pilgrimage to a mountain : "A person who climbs up a mountain must lay a stone at the bottom, or at the top as he goes down."

p. 34

"hills and mountains are often occupied by spirits which they call ngipean (sing. ekipe). {with /n/ plural-marker, cf. [Maori] /na/ plural definite article; with /ek/ singular-marker, cf. [Hindi] /ek/ ‘one’} These monsters ... can change their shape as they please. ... There are numerous stories about people who at a far distance have seen monsters and even heard them talk and laugh. When approaching them, however, they have suddenly disappeared without leaving any traces except abnormally big footprints. If a human being comes too near to them, they take hold of him and make him unable to move."

pp. 35-36 witchcraft & evil-eye

p. 35

witch : "ekapilan if a man, akapilan if a woman". {/eka/, /aka/ are the singular indefinite article.}

p. 36, n. 6

"the witch (ekapilan, akapilan) is differentiated from the person who causes harm with the evil eye (ekarakan, akarakan)."

pp. 42-44 = myth # 1:5 Man-Eater





"The monster had eyes all over his body."

[Bon god] Rahula; [Hellenic god] Argos Pan-optes


His human wife "gave birth to a boy who was called Ngkonyek. He boy ... had four eyes, two in front and two at the back of his head."

[Dahomean god] 4-eyed Ku

pp. 44-48 = myth # 1:6 Poyo the rude



Lizard, Mouse, Elephant (p. 46), and Emmet (p. 47): "parts of the chasing elephant fell off" (p. 48).

Elephant, Emmet, and Mouse (HH)

HH = http://www.elephantcountryweb.com/Elliestories.html#heave

pp. 48-51 = myth # 1:7 Achievements of a Witch



tropical forests of Peru` & of Bolivia

North American (LHH)


A girl "had forgotten her beads in the sleeping hut."

[Kas^inawa of eastern Peru`] A vulture {cf. beaded-thread "necklace" of Aztec vulture Cozca-quauhtli; Kemian vulture-hieroglyph as determinative for ‘mother’} transported "up into the sky" the thread-clew of by-her-own-mother-



Long-tongued "woman’s head continued chasing the girl. ...

beheaded girl whose "head rolled and" remained alive. (OTM, p. 97)

[Pawnee] "rolling human skull called "Long Tongue"". {cf. [Winnebago] "elk tongues"}


In the end the woman’s head ... grew into a tree, and that tree bore a colourful fruit which ...

[Takana of eastern Bolivia] "a whole race of cannibalistic heads, tijui" : "the severed heads give rise to the chima or chontal palm (Guilielma sp.), the fruits of which resemble hairy heads and provide food for fish" (OTM, p. 98).


grew into gourds ... the gourds dancing and singing".


[Winnebago] "There was a small squash with stripes around it." (= Sacred Rattle for dancing and singing)


"The thorns changed into stones, small and beautiful ones. When one day a woman passed by ..., she picked up one".


[Pawnee] "the girl threw the smooth stones behind her, and they suddenly multiplied into a whole field of stones."

LHH = http://hotcakencyclopedia.com/ho.LittleHumanHead.html

OTM = Claude Levi-Strauss (transl. from the French by Weightman) : The Origin of Table Manners. Harper & Row, 1978. http://books.google.com/books?id=1H0vGWaYg0QC&pg=PA98&lpg=PA98&dq=myth+tree+%22rolling+head%22&source=bl&ots=iiTfwkiFwn&sig=oGTxbBjo4LJdtxwd4dLwmvOge9E&hl=en&ei=tnI7S76aLM60tgeZi_WBCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=myth%20tree%20%22rolling%20head%22&f=false



North American



[Winnebago] "the human head said, "You must pack me on your back, and you will take off your underskirt. You must pack me in that, and you must put me so that I strike your butt," it said. Therefore, she did it that way. She packed him, and she packed him so that he would strike against her butt". (LHH)

[Cree astronomical identification] Rolling-head woman’s buttocks "that is her bum, you see those three stars ... of the big dipper" (A).

A pack containing the "TRaP", a "mummified head" (T) according to Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to Gen. xxxi. 19, was sat upon by the woman Rah.el.


"the gourds broke into pieces and changed into sheep."


/Rah.el/ signifieth ‘Ewe’ (Strong’s 7353).


"the sheep ... changed into thorns."

[Cree] ""Let there be thorns", like a big fence grew there. The thorns grew and Chichipistigan (the Rolling Head) got tangled up in the thorns." (A)

[Assiniboin] Girl and boy fled the pursuing rolling head of their mother. "A great number of awls sprang up" (SS).


"this stone made the woman pregnant, and she gave birth to an abnormal child with only one eye, one ear, one leg and one hand."

[Cree] Wi-missoso, the man in the canoe, "would just bang on his canoe, and the canoe would go" (A).


A = http://www.kayas.ca/Stories/ayas/ayas.html

T = http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=150&letter=T&search=teraphim

SS = http://www.indianmythology.org/assiniboin/seven_stars.htm

pp. 53-60 = myth # 2:1 Hyaina & Boy





Ekiru said to the Hyaina : "the emuron may just pronounce a word at his home, and then the roof of our cave will fall down upon you."

Melam-pod- told to Phulakos (whose hound had caught Melam-pod- -- GM 72.c) that the woodworms had pronounced that the roof of his gaol (wherein Melam-pod- was imMURed) was about to collapse. (GM 72.d)


Ekiru inherited the sheep belonging to the Hyaina.

To Melam-pod- were given the cattle owned by Phulakos. (GM 72.f)


In "the home in the cave",

The daughters of Proitos (i.e., of Anaxagoras – GM 72.k) "took refuge in a cave" (GM 72.j)


"the flies roaming about on the hyena’s tongue."

when they "went raging ... like cows stung by the gadfly" (GM 72.g).


The Leopard imagined itself accused by Ekiru of being a "thief".

Helios promised (for the sake of Melam-pod- -- GM 72.h) to render to "Artemis the names of certain kings who had omitted their sacrifices" (GM 72.i).

GM = Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955.

pp. 60-61 = myth #2:2 Two Groups of Monkeys





"the leader of the defenders had his hand broken when the leader of the invaders struck him hard over his hand."

Helenos, the leader of the defenders, had his hand broken when Menelaos, the leader of the invaders, struck him (Iliad, lib.XIII, l. 576).


"In spite of his broken hand, this leader danced so that ... he married the daughter of a certain monkey as was promised."

Helenos married Andro-makhe.

RELIGIONSHISTORISKA INSTITUTIONEN VID STOCKHOLMS UNIVERSITET, SKRIFTER, 8 = Hans-Egil Hauge (ed. by David Westerlund) : Turkana Religion and Folklore. 1986.