Taoist Ritual


pp. 93-97 The True Scripture of the Great Emperor

p. 93 subordinates

Immortal Medicine Officer

Awesome Martial Retainer

Perfect Man of the Green Kerchief

6 Strong Soldiers who Expell Evil

the Female Physician

Great Messenger who Flieth to Heaven

p. 94 prophecy by the Heavenly Venerable:

"A green dog barks

A wooden pig squeals,

A rooster [crows] at the rabbit [in the] moon".

p. 97 Spell for Commanding Water:

"I am the Lord of Earth, Chaotic Origin, Ancestor of the Tao

Pacing the Mainstays with correct breaths ...

Three shocks from the earthquake and the medium was possessed".


pp. 119-120 legend of Pu-zu, according to the Min S^u (ca. 1629) by He Qiao-yuan


p. 119 during his lifetime

"He built ... bridges.

{cf. [Latin] ponti-fex "bridge-maker"}

... his disciple ... piled up boulders to form two towers at the edge of the cliff. They overhung a precipitious ravine."

{In Sze-chuan, tombs commonly overhang a ravine. Cf. also [Zarathustrian] "towers of silence", etc.}

p. 120 after his death

[Aztec] Tlaloc

"thunder roared and lightning struck. ...

Tlaloc was lightning-god

The statues of Puzu are mostly black.

Tlaloc is depicted as black.

... They put Puzu in a cave and smoked him for seven cays and seven nights.

Tlaloc retired into a cavern.

Pu-zu's "nose disappears."

Tlaloc is often (as, at Teotihuacan) depicted nearly noseless.


legend of Guo Z^on-fu

pp. 135-136 according to the Fen-s^an Si Z^i-lue (1888) by Yan Jun

Guo S^en-wan ("Saintly King")


p. 135 To the grave-geomancer was offered "a meal of a lamb that had fallen into a latrine."

"with the use of a latrine ... the husband ... takes large gourds ... and ... floats away to the moon." (HM, p. 243) [In the myth of the Maori of New Zealand, the outhouse for defaecation in heaven is the source of sunset reddened by the blood of the god -- an allusion to haemerrhoids?]

Guo's mother was instructed to "grind up the bones of" his husband, his father.

This grinding-up of human bones was an act by the goddess Cihua-coatl. (Q)

p. 135 "her son [Guo] tended the sheep."

Hermes "was said to protect shepherds and was often shown carrying a lamb on his shoulders." (CDCM, s.v. "Hermes")

p.136 She and her son Guo afterwards saw "a monk wearing a metal rain-hat".

Hermes weareth "a round hat against the rain" (GM 17.f).

Ashes for the corpse of the father of Guo "had all turned into black hornets which had stung to death everyone".

[Tlapanec myth] 2 boys stuffed the skin of their grandfather's corpse with bees, which stung. (RMTL, p. 76) cf. hornets set by 2 boys to sting in realm of the death-gods, in the PV.

p. 138 When Guo was about to die, "he asked his mother to bring a gourd ..." {cf. ceramic container?}

In "Tamoanchan "the old goddess Cihuacoatl, or Woman Serpent, grinds the bones into a flour-like meal which she places in a special ceramic container." (OP)

p. 137 In order to depart this world, Guo had "climbed Guo Mountain with a jug of wine and

Going to "Toltec Mountain" (DQ, 28-B), in an "extremely intoxicated state, Quetzalcoatl ... arose and left town." (MM)

a cow."

Hermes rescued (from Argos Pan-optes) the cow-heroine Io (GM 56.a).

p. 140 "According to Yang Jun, the site of the tomb had the shape of a centipede ..." {In Borneo, centipedes typify paths.}

Hermes "the old daemon of the roadside, ... that is what he originally was." (OCD, s.v. "Hermes")

But, in the version told by DeGroot,

p. 136 These acts are ascribed, instead of to Guo, to Guo's father, who was a "slave".

The retrieval of the bones is usually ascribed to Quetzal-coatl & his twin-brother Xolotl ("Slave").

"Soon thereafter a star was seen in the house and a boy [Guo] was born."

Quetzal-coatl, "as the god of thieves" (AIMG, p. S16), was manifest through the planet Mercury (= Hermes). [As for the retrieval of bones, "Mendieta assigned this story to the planet Mercury." (loc. cit.)]

He died seated on a chair: "All of a sudden his chair rose up into the air. His mother rushed in at that instant and prevented his miraculous ascension by pulling on one of his legs."

[C^amakoko of western Paraguay] children: "to escape the vengeance of their mother, they entered the Sky and urged it to distance itself from the earth. However, upon spying the leg of one of them hanging from the sky she pleaded with the birds ... to mutilate the leg." (RChI, p. 260)

p. 139 Guo's father-in-law "had his wife bury smouldering coals at the four corners of his coffin."

The kerukeion (named for Keruk-s, son of Aglauros & Hermes) of Hermes is enwrapped with winged serpents = Hermes's parents-in-law (Kekrops & his wife Aglauros the 1st): cf. the winged serpent which carried in its mouth a hearth-ember (YS^<YH 6:6).

When Guo's fiance' came via sedan-chair to his temple, "the bearers ... discovered that the woman was gone and that a stone had taken her place."

The heroine Aglauros the 2nd arranged the marriage of Hermes: she "discovered she could not move any more. Her limbs stiffened ... choking off her breath. She turned into a lifeless statue, and ... the stone was not white in colour because her soul had stained it black." (E) [Cf. the "black stone" (at Mekka), said to have been white until stained black by human sins.]

This Aglauros episode would apparently repraesent "sleep paralysis" etc.

according to the Guo-s^an Miao-z^i (1897) by Dai Fen-yi:

p. 158, n. "Minced rabbit meat" was offered to the Reverent King Guo.

[Algonkin] Manaboz^o ("great hare") was swallowed by Mes^ekenabek the serpent (O6): cf. rabbit attacked by feathered serpent in CB, p. 52.


GM = Robert Graves: The Greek Myths. 1955.

CDCM = Pierre Grimal (tr. by Maxwell-Hyslop): A Concise Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 1990.

OCD = Oxford Classical Dictionary.

E = http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Envy.html

Q = www.mythencyclopedia.com/Pr-Sa/Quetzalcoatl.html

DQ = http://weber.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/nahuatl/ReadingQuetzalcoatl.html

OP = http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Hills/3430/Myths.html

MM = http://mmothra.blogspot.com/2005/03/quetzalcoatl-and-sexual-secrets-of.html

O6 = http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/oph/oph06.htm

AIMG = ARCHAEOASTRONOMY, no. 2 (JHA, xi (1980)) pp. S1-S54 David H. Kelley: "Astronomical Identities of MesoAmerican Gods".

RMTL = Peter van der Loo: "Ritual and Myth in Tlapanec Life." In:- Lawrence E. Sullivan (ed.): Native Religions and Cultures of Central and South America. Continuum, 2002. pp. 67-92

RChI = Edgardo Jorge Cordeu: "The Religion of the Chamacoco (Ishi`r) Indians." In:- Lawrence E. Sullivan (ed.): Native Religions and Cultures of Central and South America. Continuum, 2002. pp. 254-277

PV = Popol Vuh

CB = Codex Borgia

HM = Martha Beckwith: Hawaiian Mythology. Yale U. Pr, 1940.

Kenneth Dean: Taoist Ritual and Popular Cults of Southeast China. Princeton U. Pr, 1993.