Religion of the Kafir

pp. 9-10 tribal dialects

p. 9

western Kati (in Ramgal, Kulum, Ktiwi, and Papruk valleys)


eastern Kati (in Bas^gal and Skorigul valleys)

p. 10

Prasun (in Pec^[Wez, according to map] valley)


Waigali (on Waigal [Agok, according to map], a tributary to the Pec^)

[according to map] Prasun (on north) and Waigali (on south) are mutually adjacent; to the west of the Prasun are the western Kati, and to the east of the Prasun are the eastern Kati

pp. 19-20 ethnologists visiting Kafiristan






Kati refugees in C^itral







pp. 36-37 cosmology

p. 36

[Prasun] "The highest of these heavens, Il-Munj, is occupied by the god Mandi".


[Prasun] The underworld "Yurdesh can be reached through a hole in the ground ... . Anyone who was unfortunate enough to glance into this hole immediately died." [cf. also p. 51]

p. 37

"Kshumai opens seven windows in "one of the Mesir mountains"; Mon recognizes this mythical home when the ‘eighth window’ is opened".

p. 43 joints of body of god

"A dancing demon falls apart as Mon removes the screws from the body (apparently at the joints ...)."

"Agru’s son ... the joints of his body began to move (as they were jammed before)." (RV 4:19:9 -- AHIVP, p. 35, n. 20)

RV = R.c Veda.

AHIVP = By K. C. Singhal, Roshan Gupta : The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period: a new interpretation. Atlantic Publ, New Delhi, 2003.

p. 43 her father’s sacred beverage given away by goddess to a god

"an underground water supply ... made it impossible to take one of the forts of the demons. Mandi sleeps with the daughter of the giant, discovers the secret and destroys the subterranean channel.

{When Bo,lverk had sexual intercourse with the daughter of Suttung, she offered to him her father’s mead. Bo,lverk quaffed the entire supply of mead.

Tormented by thirst, the besieged giant strangles his daughter with his bare hands".

Suttung pursued the guilty couple (Braga-ro,dir 5)}.

incarnation of the Word, who "cometh as a Thief in the night"

/IMRA/ [cf. />IMMeR/ ‘talkative’ (Strong’s 564)]

{/IMbRAmos/ & /IMbRAsos/ are stated (by Eustathios) to be epithets of Hermes ("HT").}

p. 48 [Kati] "Imra is surrounded by a golden aura."

{Hermes is wearer of "winged golden sandals" (GM 17.f).}

p. 48 Imra appropriated "the use of a golden bed and a golden seat".


"HT" =

GM = Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955.

distinct from Imra is Mara = Mara-malik, who was made "ruler of the underground realm of the dead" by Imra (p. 48).





[Prasun] Mara built the first mill.

{[Icelandic] mill of Amlo`di = [Danish] Amlet = [Shakespeare’s] Hamlet}


[Prasun] Mara "created the dogs to wake mankind through their barking." [cf. p. 61]

{Resembling Hamlet is [Persian] H^usrau, who "likens himself to a dog." (HM, p. 39)}


"Mara’s wife is described as a witch".

{the fravas^i (spirit-wife) of Xusroy (H^usrau) deterred (PS, p. 81) Neryosang (= Nara-ayana)]}


"Mara himself if found copulating with the daughters of mortal men ..., not sparing even a small girl".


HM = Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend : Hamlet’s Mill. 1977.

PS = Georges Dume’zil (ed. by Jaan Puhvel & David Weeks) : The Plight of a Sorcerer. U of CA Pr, Berkeley, 1986.

p. 52 ram-god’s deed told by living cloud

[Prasun] "the god came in the form of a white ram and impregnated the

{Poseidon "changed ... himself into a ram, and tupped" (GM 70.l) Theo-phane,

daughter of the clan progenitor Kuzum. ...

daughter of ("T-Th") Bisaltes [name of a tribe in Thraike] :

A colored cloud told of their embraces ..., ... and the child was surrounded by a halo.

this deed was told (loc. cit.) by goddess Nephele (‘Cloud’), who was "a phantom" (GM 70.a).

The girl’s father [Kuzum] cbose to follow his daughter into the other world by jumping after her into a lake.

The body-parts of Aigialeus were "consigned one by one to the swift current." (GM 153.a)

He returned with wonderful clothes, which he put on and

This seduction of Theo-phane was depicted in a mythic embroidery ("A").

then slept with his wife, causing both to regain their youth."

As for Iason’s father Aison, "Medea ... restored his youth by a magic elixir" (GM 155.h).}

"Mara ... commanded the worship of ... his son (Himindu ...)."


"T-Th" =

"A" =

pp. 53-54 [Kati] S^omde = [Pasun] Wus^um





[Prasun] wUS^uM {cf. [Olmec] USUMacinta river}

{[Awestan] Kavi USaN = [Vaidik] kavi US`aNas}


Wus^um is protector of a giant who descended a "wall upon which dung has been smeared."

{Us`anas’s son-in-law Yayati plummeted down to earth on account of his unclean thought (PS, p. 16).}


That giant survived, even after being, by means of excrement,

{Us`anas, though opened at his belly by the exiting Kaca, survived (PS, p. 72).}


severed in twain horizontally : "the upper half of the giant flees." The severer, Peda:mu:nd, [/-mu:nd/ ‘temporary priest’] "returns into

{Half (of the 1000 years’ service) remained (PS, p. 33) to be accomplished.}


the valley through a waterfall that to this day is called Peda:-waterfall."


Wus^um had a golden dancing-stick and a golden collar.

{By his yoga, "Us`anas entered the body of Kubera", and thereby "robbed him of all his riches" (PS, p. 76).}

p. 55 Munjem Malik




Munjem Malik was son of a woman whose nose had been amputated.

S`ambuka was son the raks.asi S`urpa-nakha, whose had been amputated (IDH). He was killed by an arrow aimed at a rhinoceros by Laks.mana.

S`reyamsa-natha, the 11th tirthankara, symbolized by a rhinoceros, was son of ("ShT") VIS.N.U

After first laming her,


S`reyamsa-natha’s naks.atra is S`ron.a (‘Lame’).

he deliberately crushed to death the bird-soul of the witch.

Laks.mana also amputated the nose of raks.asi Ayas-mukhi (‘Iron Mouth’) in the forest of ("AG") Kraun~ca (‘Curlew’ [– also the name of the dvipa circumambulated by Skanda]).


Buried, "his father’s head is still living".

VIS.N.U’s head remained living after being beheaded.



"ShT" =[uid]=182&no_cache=1

"AG" =

pp. 58-61 [Kati] Mon = [Prasun] Mandi






[Prasun] After she had sowed, harvested, threshed, and winnowed her grain, goddess Disni sexually seduced god Mandi,

{A prostitute sexually seduced Enkidu,

{"Demeter of the braided tresses followed her heart and lay in love with Iasion in the triple-furrowed field" (Odusseia 5 – "I")}


thereby inducing him to enter a suspended-from-the-sky city.

thereby inducing him to enter the city Unug.}

{could /IhASIon-/ = /ISATI-/ in Karmania?}


[Kati] "old woman" : "He gave her a hollow bone to fill with flour, but the bone could not be filled."


{cf. "The hollow bone" of the howler-money, "a hyoid bone in the shape of a goblet." (JP, p. 121)


[Prasun]"Espereg-era spoke : "If you create human beings, then remove this mountain and flatten it (so that shadows do not reduce the warmth of sunlight). ...""


{[Piaroa] "Howler Monkey (Hichu) ... went to the Rock of Black Liquid to ask the Grandfather for sleep. ... Howler Monkey ... slid down, flattening out the end of his private member" ("EL", p. 72).}


When Mandi inserted it through the door of the ogre Espereg-era,

{Enkidu’s hand became jammed in the door of ogre Huwawa.}


"the finger became golden. ... His arm immediately became golden."


{cf. "gold-handed" (RV 1:35:9-10 – VE, p. 140) Savitr@, who


"He placed the sun on his right shoulder".


" ‘impels’ the sun." (EI-EC, p. 289b)}

I =

JP = Claude Le’vi-Strauss: The Jealous Potter. U of Chicago Pr, 1988.

"EL" = Joanna Overing : "The Efficacy of Laughter". In :- Joanna Overing & Alan Passes (ed.s) : The Anthropology of Love and Anger. London : Routledge, 2000. pp. 64-81.

VE = Raimundo Panikkar : The Vedic Experience.

EI-EC = J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams (ed.s) : Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Fitzroy Dearborn Publ, Chicago, 1997.

p. 64 Indr

"the god Indr ... was said to be worshipped especially in Waigal. ... There must be some ancient connection between the name of the god and the terms of rainbow (ind’r.o) and

{Indra-capa ‘Indra’s bow’ = ‘rainbow’}

for earthquake (indr’is.t)".

{cf. "Indra-type earthquake" ("EAI", p. 2)} {appearing in one’s "dream with a great earthquake", Mahakala "stands on the body of the white elephant king, Ganapati." ("B&D") Thus, Indra is rider on a white elephant, Airavata (EDP).}

When summoned by Indr, "an eagle comes; and ... a landslide comes down".


"EAI" = R. N. Iyengar : "Earthquakes in Ancient India"

"B&D" = "Buddha and Divinity" (Chapter 10 of :- C. M. Chen : Discriminations between Buddhist and Hindu Tantra).

EDP = Parmeshwaranand : Encyclopaedic Dictionary of

pp. 64-65 family-relations of Indr


Indr’s __

is __













pp. 65-66 [Kati] Gis^ = [Prasun] Giwis^



{Amharic; Hellenic}


[Kati] "his mother is called Utr ... . She is supposed to have carried {gestated} him for eighteen months before he broke out from her navel. ...

{Aristaios married (GM 82.e) Auto-noe (‘Self-mind’). [self- minding by one’s contemplation of one’s navel-plexus?]}


It was only after she had planted a gigantic walnut with eighteen branches reaching to the sky that he ... broke through her body ...,

{(ATK, p. 102) "The adbar is a female, protective spirit ... . The tree is referred to as the adbar, and it is ... able to take a mortal revenge" {as can likewise be taken by Hellenic tree—nymphs}.


while the mother had to prop up the branches of the wondrous tree with steel pillars.

{(ATK, pp. 102-3) "The wide branches of the old tree were therefore supported with sticks ... when they became too wide to support themselves."}


The branches soon bore nuts".

{cf. Euru-dike’s companions the oak-nymphs Druades, for whom


"He steals a calf and places it under his bull to suck".

Aristaios immolated "a fatted calf" (GM 82.i), after having immolated "four young bulls".


"Gish killed her father (the god Sanu) and played polo with her head."

Aristaios voyaged to (GM 82.f) the island Keos [whose name may be cognate with Skt. */s`asa/ ‘hare’: cf. the rabbit who (according to the Popol Vuh – "DH&I") used the head of a god as ball in ball-game]}


"he threw his spear into the ground, bringing forth sweet roots."

{(ATK, p. 105) "the adbar’s property ... is ... a ja:ba:na (coffee pot) and


"a hornless ox caused the appearance of a bridge." {cf. sleeping under bridges by the homeless, to shelter themselves from rain}

an umbrella".}


[Kati] "the rainbow was ... the strap with which Gish carries his quiver".


ATK = Harald Aspen : Amhara Traditions of Knowledge. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2001.

"DH&I" = Chapter 11 of :- Raphael Girard : Esotericism of the Popol Vuh.

Aristaios, keeper of bees (GM 82.h-i) in an APIary, stayed (GM 82.e) in the valley of the river APIdanos.

/>aDBar/ : /DBo^Rah/ ‘bee’ (Strong’s 1682)

Strong’s = Hebrew & Aramaic Dictionary of Bible Words.

[Kati] Sanju: = [Prasun] Su:lmec^

p. 67 [Kati] goddess "Sanju:’s father was a god by the name of Sanu." She was Gis^’s "paramour and eloped with him."

{the father of Auto-noe was (CDCM, s.v. "Cadmus") Kadmos [kadmeia = pseud-arguros (literally ‘false silver’) ‘zinc, spelter’ ("C"),

p. 65 Gis^ plied (sewing shut his mother’s navel with it with it) "a steel needle."

the German term "zinke" (‘jagged’) referring to the needle-like appearance of its crystals, these crystals perhaps being emblemized in the "serpent’s teeth" sown (GM 58.g) by Kadmos beside the Kastalian water-spring.]}

"C" =

CDCM = Pierre Grimal : A Concise Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 1990.

pp. 68-71 [Kati] Disani = [Prasun] Disni





the name /DISani/

{cf. /Vana-DI`S/ (Freyja, di`s of the vanir according to the prose Edda) : with the Bri`sing necklace acquired by Freyja (according to the prose Edda) cf. the necklace of (GM 59.b) Harmonia, wife of Kadmos}


[Kati] "There is a tree growing out of a lake in a land beyond the reach of mortals. It would take nine years for an attempt to climb it ... . ... this tree ... revealed Disani at its center."



[Prasun] lanes leading outward from Disni’s tower : "of silk", "of red silk", "green".

"The ‘nine gates of mercy’ ... are in the care of Disni".

Her son "Bagisht was fathered by a demon who raped the goddess as she bent over while milking."



"Disni can appear as a wild goat".

{cf. "the Goat-nymph Amaltheia." (GM 7.b)}


[Prasun] "the sacred lake of Su:jum. When Disni’s golden tree with golden branches grew out of the lake, the disk placed itself on a large branch".

{cf. goddess Gull [/gull/ ‘gold’]-veig,


[As^kun] "god Indr is thought to be the father of Disani"; her mother is Nangi-Wutr

whose father is (Ynglinga-saga 4) Njo,rd}


p. 71 "Diwog’s son hid himself in a boulder".

Kronos’ son Zeus "transformed himself into a rock" (GM 66.b) in order to hide himself

pp. 72-73 Nirmali = Nirmik





[Kati ] Nirmali is goddess of the hut where women "stay during their menstruation".

{Nirmali [‘immaculate’], a Vais.n.ava sect who members wash their hands 108 time each day (CI)}


"unmarried girls let a beetle named ‘nimga-ga’ fly away in order to find the village from which their future husbands will come."


Edward Balfour : The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. London.

pp. 72-73 S^uwe, Pus^as^i





[Prasun] goddess S^uWe

{cf. [Skt.] /S`iVa/}


goddess Pus^as^i / Pos^as^i = Nirmik

{cf. [Skt.] /pus.ya/ ‘flower’}

p. 73- Z^iwud / Z^uwut



[Prasun] "a goddess by the name of Zhuwut is sent by the ... gods to fetch Mandi. ... Mandi emerges in the form of a falcon".

{could Z^uwut herself have originally been a falcon? if so, cf. goddess Kirke (‘falcon’ – GM 170.5).}

"The goddess, who was supposed to bring Mandi to a certain game, was called ‘Z^iwud’ ... . The game was played with the gods on one side of the river and the giants on the other. Mandi appears as a calf that blows flames from its nostrils,

{cf. "fire-breathing brazen-footed bulls" (GM 152.e) in Kolkhis}

singeing Zhiwud’s wings so that she is unable to fly any more. However, she is healed soon afterwards and leads the steadily growing bull to the gods".

{[Maori] the wings of kahu (‘hawk’) were singed by Whaitiri}

[Prasun] "the same goddess is found together with an otherwise unknown deity, Gujo, who acted as guardian of the now extinct Pa:c^og ... clan."


pp. 74-75 Bagis^t




{cf. /PRASUn/}

{ was brother of (VP 8:1 – "M") PRAmS`U}


p. 74 Bagis^t "helps people to gain ... wealth." [as likewise doth Bhaga]

{ was a philanthropist (BhP 10:64:10 -- BhP).}


"Disani was nilking her cows by the banks of a lake, when she was ... from behind ... raped by a demon who had two supplementary eyes on his back. ... this happened by the Dorah lake ... .

{on the monuments on the island Sardon is depicted a 4-eyed god, who must be NoRaG- = NR.Ga}


... the goddess thus became ‘pregnant among the Jeini’. ... . [While] the birth occurred ..., she placed her knee upon the ‘playing-stone’ of the lake. ...

{cf. mud on legs of Demeter? (GM 24.a)}


A stranger explained to her that the name of the new-born child was Bagisht. ... the mother wrapped the shining body of her son in ... a blue shirt."

{cf. the blue shirt as vestment of Yazidi priests [Yazid is the <arabic name for Gis^ (p. 65)]}


{ became "a huge lizard" which fell into a well (HS, p. 242).}

{"monster Lizard ... the largest of the ancient blue Lizards (DZAINOS GOWA)" (SIM, p. 499) scurried down, "winding around and around", a deep (well-like) hole in the ground, in pursuit of a man who had fallen thereinto (SIM, p. 501).


[The wife of BhAGa (= BAGis^t) is SIDDHI (HHM, s.v. "Bhaga").

[concerning the depth of that hole, cf. /<AMO^Q/ (Strong’s 5987) ‘deep’ : cognate with Tantrik god AMOGHa, whose wife is SIDDHI.]


Bhaga was blinded by the brightness of seeing the emission of Prajapati (HMS, p. 117, quoting S`B); Prajapati = Brahma, whose gun.a is rajas ‘dust’.]

The man’s wife was transformed into "to oshada (oshada is like the dusty vapor flying on a road in dry weather)." (SIM, p. 498)


{a ball was being tossed by Deva-huti, when she was first observed from a vimana by her husband-to-be Kardama ("SV").}

That man had received "great power" from Meteor which "flew off through the air" (SIM, p. 496) [like a tossed ball]; thereupon, by flying the man had discovered is wife-to-be (SIM, p. 497)}


{cf. the [Evenk] bear-god Namondri, encountered

The same man encountered "NYAGWAIHE (the Ancient of Bears)" (SIM, p. 498)}

p. 75 [Prasun] Zu:zum of Zumu "conceals himself in the glacier ... . As the glacier melts, one sees him".

after venturing into the netherworld under a river’s surface-ice ("JEGH").}


[Kati] god Nong is addressed : "O log, come (out)!"

{cf. emergence of Nara-simha from pillar?}


p. 76 [Kati] god Duz^i is worshipped along with Bagis^t

{(in Veda) god Ams`a is worshipped with god Bhaga}


"M" = article "Manvantara" in Parmeshwaranand : Encyclopaedic Dictionary of

BhP = Bhagavata Puran.a

SIM = Jeremiah Curtin : Seneca Indian Myths. NY : Dutton & Co, 1922.

HS = DOCUMENTA MISSIONALIA 25. Mariasusai Dhavamony : Hindu Spirituality. Roma, 1999.

HHM = George Mason Williams : Handbook of Hindu Mythology. ABS-CLIO, 2003.

HMS = Wendy Doniger : Hindu Myths: a Sourcebook. 1975.

S`B = S`ata-patha Brahman.a

"SV" = "Story of Vimana-s"

"JEGH" =

p. 76 divine brotherhoods

[Kati] "divine brotherhoods ... : the seven Paradik brothers, and

{cf. /PARADa/ the name of an Afghan tribe mentioned in the Puran.a}

the seven Purron brothers, all with golden bodies.

{most of the [Jaina] tirthankara-s were golden bodied}

[Kati] "the seven Paneu ... all sit on the ‘arrow of the sun’ "

{cf. Abaris, who rode the flying arrow}

[Kati] "Pano (in the from of a donkey)"

{cf. Khara (donkey-god, in Puran.a)}

[Kam] AROM "had seven brothers". "He is responsible for contracts, receiving a sacrifice at the moment of a peace agreement".

{the ROMany (C^igani) originated betwixt Kas`mir and Dardistan}

pp. 77-78 ["one should differentiate between the goddess of vegetation Kshumai, the mountain goddess Krumay, who lives in Tirich Mir, and a deity Kamri" (p. 78).]






{KAMa-Rupin.I, the wife of Kama}


(mountain) [Prasun] her nanny-goats : "She ... knows how to milk them, throwing her long breasts over her shoulders when she does so".

{A woman throwing her long breasts over her shoulders is a feature of Caucasian mythology.}


She "hurried down Tirich Mir in the form of a goat and mixed with the gods. ... The wise Imra ... threw her suddenly into the stream. She struggled out of the water, ran up the steep rock and kicked stones loose, causing them to rain upon the gods".

{cf. the name /TeRaKa/ of a Zaratustrian sacred mountain}


[Kalas^] "Kshumai ... wearing a cowrie headdress"


(vegetation) [Prasun] "The last remaining girl asked for help from a tree ..., addressed the tree as mother ... . The tree burst open and encompassed her. The demon thus could not seize the girl ... . Finally, Kime ... left the tree on a ray of light.

{"branches of a tree are shown coming forth from the body of a lady standing naked" (AHIVP, p. 15)}

{To goddess Rheia, "the oak is sacred." (GM 7.a)


She had become pregnant. ... . ... a harper ... sang a hymn to Mandi, the earth-leveler. The earth trembled." Kime gave birth.

Rheia gave birth to Poseidon, the earth-shaker.}


pp. 121-128 Max Klimburg : "The Religion of the As^kun Area".

p. 123 heroes

"Once a villager named Swatak net the female spirit Wutrik and addressed her as "mother". At this, she ... ordered him to suck on her overlong breasts."

"An eagle sat on the shoulders of an unmarried girl, whereupon she brought the twins Tramu and Dawan into this world."

p. 124 PANao deities


patron of __

guardian of __





Gora (west of Kulatan)



(hamlets east of Kulatan











{PAN.i (‘miser’) deities included Br.bu (AHIVP, p. 41) and Arbuda (AHIVP, p. 42)}

p. 124 goddesses

"Disani ... was often called Atali-Disani, "Disani of the crossed horns".

Poluknalai was worshipped in the ... high pastures ... of the Dun~da pass. She also ruled over the eastern ascent to the pass".


Itsa’utr and

Sulut were all vegetation goddesses".

p. 126 Passamun PANao

Inder "ordered Passamun Panao to build a bridge over the Pech river. ...

{Vis`va-karman "built several bridges which could be withdrawn in case of attack." ("LCD")}

Inder told him to drink the milk from the pot standing there, but without destroying the cream layer. Passamun Panao bored a hole into the pot and suckled the milk beneath the cream."

{cf. the obtaining of milk from the PAN.i deities, according to the Veda}

"LCD" =

p. 131 another deity is reported from As^kun : "Blama-de" {this is the Bodish word /bLa-ma/}


Karl Jettmar (transl. from the German by Adam Nayyar) : THE RELIGIONS OF THE HINDU KUSH. Vol. I = The Religion of the Kafirs. Arris & Phillips, Warminster (Wiltshire), 1986.