Aequivalencies of Mythical Characters, (largely) as gleaned/culled from the Pyramid Texts

<N-t = Omphale

SWTH = Pri[w]apos

MI,N = Minos

NBR-DR = Atlas

N<R = Nereus

I,TM = Nessos

S^W = Pan

H.R = Poseidon

ram of Mendes = Pan

Ram-of-Every-Spine (ram of Mendes) is goat-headed.

Khruso-mallos ('Golden Fleece') is the ram transporting Helle who "clutched the horn" (O:F 3.853 sq -- "PH").

"Ram caught in the thicket by his horns" (B-Re>s^it 22:13).

BL-NB-DD-t (Ram-of-Every-Spine) is husband of the goddess Foremost-of-Fishes.

On the way to Paxoi [/paxamas/ ('biscuit')] "A divine voice shouted across the sea" ("WhOS" -- GM 26.g).

"Cast thy bread upon the waters, for thou shalt find it after many days" is indicative of a treasure-revealing mother marsh-bird (RF, p. 104).

"PH" = "pontios Helle"

"WhOS" = Ploutarkhos : "Why the Oracles Are Silent".

GM = Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955.

RF = David Stern & Mark Jay Mirsky (edd.) : Rabbinic Fantasies ... from Classical Hebrew Literature. Jewish Publ Soc, 1990.

S^W's identity is apparently assumed by SWTH

SWTH sexually violated goddess <N-t while she was "clad as a man" (SGC, p. 56).

Pan sought to sexually violate Omphale; but she was clad as a man (GM 136.j).

SWTH's protagonist H.R is ruler over KM-t 'Black' (SGC, p. 62).

Pan's protagonist Heraklees is designated (by Theia) as "Black-bottom" (GM 136.c).

On SWTH's account are provided 2 sceptres (for his 2 testicles) : one of the 2 is the shepherd's crook (MS, p. 285).

There was "placed in the heart of Pan the love of ... Echo [Ekhoi]" (NHB -- "GP"). Pan is a shepherd-god.

"the hailstorm (shnyt) is unleashed for me, and I roar like" SWTH (Pyramid Texts, utterance 511 -- MS, p. 200).

Pan "revenged himself on those who disturbed him with a sudden shout" (GM 26.c).

SGC = H. te Velde (transl. from the Dutch by Mrs. G. E. van Baaren-Pape) : Seth, God of Confusion. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1967.

NHB = Ptolemaios Hephaistion : New History Book 6 (summary from Photios : Myriobiblon 190).

"GP" =

MS = Alan F. Alford : The Midnight Sun : the Death and Rebirth of God in Ancient Egypt. Walsall (Engl) : Eridu Bks, 2004.

S^W (Wind-god) = Pan (*/Pa[w]an/ : cf. Pauran.ik Wind-god Pavana)

S^W saith : "my sweat is hail-storm (shnyt)" Pyramid Texts, utterance 90 -- MS, p. 202).

Figuratively, />el-gabis^/ (Strong's 417, literally, 'divine pearl') is employed for 'hailstone'.

Pearl is in Hindu myth considered the stone of the moon. Artemis is deemed (in Hellenistic writings) goddess of the moon.

"Pan would ever gaze at" Aktaion, who "had seen the whole body of" Artemis bathing in the nude (Dionusiaka 5:287-315).

Strong = Hebrew & Aramaic Dictionary of Bible Words.

Nonnos : Dionusiake 5

SWTH = Pri[w]apos

SWTH is ruler over DS^R-t 'Red' (SGC, p. 62).

"The hermae of Priapus in Italy, like those of other rustic divinities, were usually painted red, whence the god is called ruber or rubicundus." (O:F i:415, vi:319, 333 -- "GPr")

SWTH is ruler over the testicles (SGC, pp. 33-4, 37, 54-6).

There are punning allusions to the testicles in several of the Priapeia (1 & 14 & 74).

"what expands the heart of" SWTH (MS, p. 285).

Seeking to violate sexually the sleeping goddess Hestia, Priapos's "heart flutters." (O:F 6:319 sq -- "GPr")

SWTH's animal is the ass (SGC, pp. 14, 56).

To punish Hestia, an ass is slain as sacrificial offering to Priapos (O: F 6:319 sq -- "GPr").

O:F = Ovidius : Fasti.

"GPr = Priapos.html


MJN = Freyr

MJN "is famed for the size of this phallus

Likewise is Freyr.

and the power of his seed." (MS, p. 240)

As is Minos likewise famed (GM 89.c).

MJN the incest-perpetrator "impregnates his mother!" (MS, p. 240)

The name of Minos's mother, Eur-ope, is also that of the daughter of Neilos (river Nile); and the flood of the river Nile is said to be the tears shed by LS-t (Isis) when she is forcibly sexually violated by her own son.

As for this phallos, R< (sun-god) made it; but JMN (personification of the abode of the dead) "lifted it up into the sky (MS, p. 241).

Vis.n.u (whose head became the sun) sought the base of the linga (phallos) of S`iva which extendeth into the sky. To Brahma (who sought its height) is ascribed rajas.

"Min's symbols ... was the sign of the thunderbolt" (MS, p. 242). [This country KM-t, howbeit, is renown for its evermore-unclouded skies.]

Minos caused that "lightning flashed down from the cloudless sky." ("PS") Furthermore, for Numa Pompilius "Thrice did the god thunder from a cloudless sky, thrice did he hurl his bolts. ... Lo, swaying gently ..., a shield fell down ... that reached the stars." (O:F3)

"PS" = "People of the Sea"

O:F3 = Ovidius : Fasti 3

{This "shield" ancile (probably a flying saucer) is similar to the "flying shields" so often sighted in the skies (according to antique Hellenic and Latin historians -- Matthew Hurley (ed. by Neil Hague) : Alien Chronicles : Compelling Evidence for Ufos. Quester Publ, Chester, UK, 2003. pp. 104-6.,_6-8.htm ).}

JTM = Nessos

When JTM "masturbated" (Pyramid Texts, utterance 527 --- MS, p. 242),

The name of the woman who extracted his semen, /Deianeira/ is cognate with /Gwenhwyfar/, name of the queen who used Lancelot sexually.

the result (as capstone of an obelisk) was "the benben stone (bnbn) in the mansion of the benu-bird" (Pyramid Texts, utterance 600).

/OBeLisk/ may be cognate with /OBoL/ (coin placed in mouth of corpses), and thus with /APPLe/ (placed in mouth of cooked Yule-swine).

MS, p. 244 : This BNBN consisted of "solidified" semen virile of JTM.

cf. the praeserved (by Deianeira) semen virile of Nessos (GM 142.j).

The obelisk may be "the Pillar of the Stars ... the Pillar of Kenzet" (Pyramid Texts, utterance 254 -- MS, p. 244).

/KaNaZa/ is 'to pile, to heap up, to amass' (DMWA, p. 987a). The passive of /NaSS-/ (etymon of /NeSSo-/?) is 'to be piled up'.

{N.B. The piling-up of [the efflix of] Nessos may well, because it generated intense spontaneous "heat" (GM 145.c), be a figurative description of a nuclear stockpile of radioactive substance. Nessos is one of the Kentauroi, and Kentauros is the constellation containing the "Great Attractor" for our local group of galaxies -- the "Great Attractor" being believed to be an especially intense quasar.}

DMWA = Cowan : A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. 4th edn.


GB = Yo^sep = Trita

GB disputed concerning the stars (AEBA, p. 116).

Yo^sep disputed about 11 stars (B-Re>s^it 37:10).

cf. the 11 apples of immortality which keep deities immortal.

/GB/ is cognate with Strong's 1356 /GeB/ 'cistern'. /GBB/ is cognate with /JuBB/ (GuBB) 'cistern' (DMWA, p. 132a).

Yo^sep was imprisoned (by his brethren) in a cistern (B-Re>s^it 37:24).

Trita Aptya was imprisoned (by his 2 brethren, Eka and Dvita) in a well ("TrA").

"To inspire his brethren with more terror," Yo^sep ordered his minions "to make a loud noise with all sorts of instruments" (LB, p. 251). Yo^sep invited (into Mis.rayim) Ya<qob.

TRITa clave asundre (RV 1:52:5 --"MSR", p. 425) "the fences of Vala" [= Val-ho,l of O`dinn], breaking through (RV 5:86:1 -- "MSR", p. 426) the reeds for "instrumental music" ("MSR", p. 427). TRITones blow conch-trumpets "to frighten the enemies." ("T")

In resisting the "black pig", H.R became "Prince of his emerald stone" (BD cap. CXII, p. 337) [: with this emerald cf. the Bon green-winged].

{Bodish /phur-pa/ is Skt. /KILaKa/, whence the name /KILuK/ (Kilhwch) of the overcomer of the boar Turk Truti (Twrch Trwyth), in the Mabinogion ("C&O").}

Trita subdued a "three-headed ... boar" (RV 10:99:6 -- "MSR", p. 430). Cf. Bon, (as attendant to green-winged axe-wielding Phur-pa god,) "a boar headed protector rides atop a three-headed boar." ("PDCh")

The NTRw (deities) "clap their hands and stamp their feet";

{When goddess Ame-no-uzume danced stamping her feet on an overturned tub,

Heraklees "stamped his feet and made a stream of water gush out" (GM 133.f).

"Geb laughs" (MS, p. 205).

the multitude of kami laughed on her account.} Yis.haq's name signifieth 'Laughter'.

As an infant, Heraklees "laughed" (GM 119.d).

"the Eye separating from Geb's head ...,

When dead, Ya<qob "opened his eyes", at the place

O`dinn deposited his own eye in a well, namely in

where [JTM] came into being" (MS, p. 254).

whereinto "the head of [<es`aw] ... rolled down" (LB, p. 262),

the well of Mi`mir (whose trunkless head was therein).

/JTM (I,TM)/ is cognate with /YaTiM/ 'bereaved of one's parents' (DMWA, p. 1295a).

his death thus occurring immediately after his father's death (as if miming that death).

The name /MI`Mir/ is cognate with the name /MIMas/ (GM 35.e), meaning 'mimicry' (35.4).

AEBA = Erik Hornung (transl. by David Lorton) : Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. Cornell U Pr, Ithaca (NY), 1999.

"TrA" =

LB = Louis Ginzberg : Legends of the Bible. Konecky & Konecky, Old Saybrook (CT).

RV = R.c-Veda.

"MSR" = A. A. MacDonell : "Mythological Studies". J.R.A.S. July 1893, pp.419-496.

"T" = "Triton"

BD = E. A. Wallis Budge : The Book of the Dead (Theban Recension). 2nd edn. Kegan Paul, Trench, Tru:bner & Sons, 1899.

"C&O" = "Culhwch and Olwen"

"PDCh" =

Kemetic feminine countrepart (to male deity) as "Eye"

MS, p. 256 "In myths of creation [concerning JTm and NBR-DR], ... the Eye emerges as a creator {creatrix}-goddess in her own right ..., since it was she, with her magical power, who brought his otiose body to life.

This personified "Eye" would be aequivalent to the Tantrik S`akti ('Power') as feminine alter ego of a male deity.

We should not be ... thinking that the 'eye' was a diminutive of the 'body' of the God. To the Egyptians, it denoted a complete being, of equivalent size to her male consort."

MS, p. 278 The Eye-goddess emitteth 2 streams of flaming natron at the 3rd portal of the Netherworld (Coffin Texts, spell 336).

R< = Polu-phemos

"when the sky has yet to be separated from the earth ...; what did exist was

These eras (of before and after such separation) are distinguished as : ""before Heaven" and "after Heaven"; "prior to Heaven" and "posterior to Heaven"; ... sometimes translated "former Heaven" and "later Heaven" (ET, p. 1094).

a mythical race of people, the inhabitants of the old world, from whom the survivors became the seeds of mankind in the new world." (MS, p. 262)

"the faithful "seed people" would survive to repopulate a utopian world of Great Peace." ("DRT")

"only those who have done good will survive to become seed-people" (ESGP,j -- "AJSTCh", p. 83).

In DM, R< "orders the rebels to be punished in ... 'the land of caves.'" (MS, p. 263)

cf. the depraedations suffred by the crew of Odusseus in the cave of Polu-phemos (GM 170.b-c).

R< placeth maggots in the Eye (Pyramid Texts, utterance 711 -- MS, p. 276); yet R< is full of luminosity, being the sun-god. {Are these "maggots" really (intended as) glowworms? If, so this "sense of rhythm" ("MRhSFF") is worthy of a true beatnik.}

The single eye of Polu-phemos is drilled into (GM 170.d) : hence the saying, "If thine Eye be single, thine whole body shalt be full of light." ("IThEBS") {Glowworms are firefly-larvae : fireflies which flash in unison exemplify a communistic principle of communally shared sexuality ("WhSFFU", "ESFB").

ET = Fabrizio Pregadio (ed.) : The Encyclopedia of Taoism. Routledge, Oxford, 2008.

"DRT" =

ESGP,j = Excerpts from the Scripture of Great Peace, jia section.

"AJSTCh" = Wang Ming : "Apocryphal Jia Section in Taipingjing Chao". In :- Zhongjian Mou (ed.) : Taoism. pp. 65-86.

DM = Destruction of Mankind.

"MRhSFF" = "Mechanism of rhythmic synchronous flashing of fireflies"

"IThEBS" (Matthaios 6:22)

"WhSFFU" = "Why Some Fireflies Flash in Unison"

"ESFB" = "Evolution of Synchronous Flash Behavior"

"Synchronized Fireflies" on YouTube

Other synchronized animal-activities (Strogatz, S.H., and Stewart, I., "Coupled Oscillators and Biological Synchronization". SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Dec 1993, pp. 68-75. -- ) :-

Fidler crab: synchronized craw waving

Honey bees: synchronized respiration

Ants, synchronized : Alarm drumming

Termites: synchronized chewing

Herring gulls: synchronized breeding

goddess NW-t = goddesses Graiai;

NBR-DR = Atlas

N<R = Nereus

"O Nut, the eyes have gone forth from your head.

The Graiai "shared among themselves a single detatchable eye and tooth." ("PG")

You have carried off ... Great of Magic." (Pyramid Texts, utterance 443 -- MS, p. 268) These are "the two crowns Great of Magic." (Pyramid Texts, utterance 749 -- MS, p. 268)

Certain accoutrements, including "the dark helmet of invisibility ... were in the care of the Stygian nymphs ...; but their whereabouts where known only to ... the [Graiai] ... . Perseus accordingly sought out

The name of goddess NW-t signifieth 'Sky'.

the [Graiai] on their throne at the foot of Mt. Atlas." (GM 73.g) Mt. Atlas is named for the titan Atlas (GM 73.i), who is burthened with the "task of supporting the celestial globe upon his shoulders" (GM 133.c).

NBR-DR is caretaker of divine plants which are designated

"Atlas took a gardener's pride in" (GM 133.c) the orchard of his daughters the Hesperides.

WLBw ('Cloud') plants (MS, p. 271).

The place of Atlas is "wrapped in dark clouds." (H:Th 744 sq)

{"Perforated cloud formations (... cloud decorations) are ... the garden mounds of these sky beings", according to the Huli ("TAS", p. 98).}

"Bobok ... on top of the clouds began ... opening holes that allowed water to drain down to the earth." (DD, p. 32)

NBR-DR "wept over" his own (dismembred) limbs (MS, p. 277).

Atlas "sobbed" for his lioness-slain nephew the "eye-catching" Huas (O:F 5.164 sq --"TA").

NBR-DR stated (MS, p. 277) : "I gathered together my limbs."

As with the case of Atlas (O:M 4.627 sq), so with Pan-gu (HChM, p. 177) : his bones became stones, his hair became plants, etc.

NBR-DR stated (B-RhP -- MS, p. 188) : "I am indeed the one who ... copulated with my shadow".

"the shadows on Atlas show" (PhE:I 2:20 -- "TA").

N<R ('Catfish') is a category of mythic primordial deities : these are believed to be "the electric catfish ... indigenous to ... the Nile basin ... and ... capable of producing a powerful jolt of electricity" ("EC").

Information on how to obtain the fruits of the orchard of the Hesperides is available (to Atlas) from sea-god NEReus (GM 133.d).


H:Th = Hesiodos : Theogony.

"TAS" = L. R. Goldman : “A Trickster for All Seasons”. In :- L. R. Goldman & C. Ballard (eds.) : Fluid Ontologies : Myth, ritual and philosophy in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Bergin & Garvey, Westport (CT), 1998. pp. 87-124.

DD = Stan Padilla : Deer Dancer : Yaqui legends. Bk Publ Co, Summertown (TN), 1998.

"TA" = "titan Atlas"

O:M = Ovidius : Metamorphoses.

B-RhP = Bremner-Rhine Papyrus.

PhE:I = Philostratos the Elder : Imagines.

"EC" = "Electric Catfish"

H^PR (Kemetic god personifying H^aPiRti, the indigenous name for [S^emitic] <elam/Elumai:s)

The verb /tjz/ (/ti,z/) 'knit together' is applied (in the Coffin Texts) to "the spine of Kheper" (MS, p. 273).

Kemetic /TIZ/ is cognate with Persian /DIZ/ 'fortress, castle', as in /Diz-pul/, name of the city of the Gnostik Manda< = Umman-Manda.

DH.WTY = Jara-sandha = Antaios

DH.WTY "who came forth from the two

"King Br.hadratha had two wives, twins ...; they ... each ... conceived, and brought forth half a body. ... there appeared a female named Jara ... . She took up the two halves and joined them, and they united into a sturdy child, Jarasandha ("joined by Jara")." (MBh 2:16:12-2:17:5 -- OEHM, p. 251)

stone eggs." (MS, p. 275)

The "rainbow is a power serpent that produces eggs ... in the shape of small and pretty stones." ("FNT-PP", p. 24) With this eggs-and-rainbow, compare the Peruvian egg-born man Pariakaka's son Watiakuri, in turn "having a rainbow round his head" (MM&P).

Like unto Peru`, another antient archaiological-site region, Bosnia, is likewise known for both "stone eggs" ("ASE") and a [geological formation, not man-made] pyramid.

In Arnhemland aboriginal lore, "the Rainbow Snake" "dreaming in the earth" "projected images onto rocks and into caves. From these came living beings, peopling the earth." (MJLQ, p. 40)

Jara-sandha while wrestling became (MBh 2:23) tired. With the Spanish word for 'tired', /CANSado/, cf. the name /KAMSa/ of Jara-sandha's son-in-law.

The son-in-law of Antaios is Alexi-damas (P:PO9 -- "GA").

The name /JaRa-SANDHa/ could be interpreted as Bodish /ZoR/ 'seeds thrown onto a person as blessing' (as, rice at a wedding) + 'SAND'.

Antaios "poured hot sand over his limbs" (GM 133.h). {cf. sand-shower so as to entre Abyss.}

MBh = Dvaipayana : Maha-bharata.

OEHM = Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty : The Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology. U of CA Pr, Berkeley, 1976.

"FNT-PP" = Buenaventura Tera`n (transl. by Graciela N. V. Corvala`n) : "Figures from the Niachinamole or Toba-Pilaga` Pantheon". NAOS : NOTES AND MATERIALS FOR THE LINGUISTIC STUDY OF THE SACRED 12 (1996):20-9.

MM&P = Lewis Spence : The Myths of Mexico and Peru. London : George Harrap, 1913. (cap VII).

"ASE" = "Ancient Stone Egg".

MJLQ = Moyra Caldecott : Mythical Journeys, Legendary Quests. Blandford (a Cassell imprint), 1996.

MBh 2:23

P:PO = Pindaros : Pythian Ode.

"GA" = "gigas Antaios"

temporary collapse of a pillar upholding the sky

MS, p. 279 "The two djed-pillars stand, though the broken rubble has fallen." (Pyramid Texts, utterance 271 -- MS, p. 279)

The sky-upholding pillars to the northwest and to the southeast were damaged, though they were afterwards repaired by a goddess (ChM, p. 95).

ChM = Lihui Yang & Deming An : Handbook of Chinese Mythology. Oxford U Pr, 2005.

Osiris fell from the sky

MS, p. 279 "In the Pyramid Texts, Osiris is said to have been thrown to the earth by Seth.

Hephaistos was heaved down from mt. Olumpos (GM 23.b).

... in the Coffin Texts, ... there is a suggestion ... that he lost his teeth at this time".

as is said of god in the Puran.a-s

MS, p. 279 "Spell 908 of the Coffin Text suggests that [I,NPW], the jackal god of the necropolis, descended from the sky in order to tend Osiris."

snakes of Exodos

"One snake is swallowed by other." (MS, p. 279)

This befell (S^emo^t 7:12) the snake-pets of magicians Yo^h.anay and Mamre> ("J&J"),

In Capitulum XL (BD, p. 171) of the Book of Coming Forth by Day, it is suggested that the snake influenced the ass (steed of I,H.W = Bil<am).

who also became, according to the Targum ("JVLJ&J"), servants of Bil<am, whose ass refused to advance against an invisible mal>ak (angel).

"J&J" = "Jannes and Jambres"

"JVLJ&J" =

BD = E.A. Wallis Budge : The Book of the Dead. Kegan Paul, Trench, Tru:bner, 1899.

origin of grain and of agriculture

S^W saith of himself : "My identity ... [I,TM] made as the grain god when he caused me to go down ...

Instead of grain, the pine-tree goddess Pitus (for pignolia nuts?) was pursued by Pan (N:D 42.196 -- "P&P").

to the isle of fire" ([Coffin Texts,] spell 80 -- MS, p. 280).

"Beside this Pan a fire is kept burning which is never allowed to go out." (P:DH 8:37:11 -- "PC")

As for SWTH, "the blood flowed from his nose -- and that is how agriculture began" (MS, p. 280).

Nosebleeds are frequent in one's achieving shamanic powers.

"P&P" = "Pan and Pitys"

P:DH = Pausanias : Description of Hellas.

"PC" = "Pan Cult"

shaking of Earth and of Sky

H.R is "the One at whom the Earth Quakes" (Pyramid Texts, utterance 215 -- MS, p. 282).

Poseidon is designated as "Shaker of the Earth (Ennosigaios)" (Homeric Hymn 22 -- "HP").

The eye of H.R "was gouged" (Pyramid Texts, utterance 570 -- MS, p. 283).

Poseidon was, according to some, father of "Phineus, a blinded prophet" (A:B 1:120 -- "PF").

"Hymns to Poseidon"

A:B = Apollodoros : Bibliotheke.

"PF" = "Poseidon Family"

eucharist as sweet loaf

"Bring in the hippopotamus in the form of a cake." (Triumph of H.R -- MS, p. 287).

In the Coptic Church, the bread-eucharist ("lamb's bread") is baked as a whole loaf, which must be cut into pieces in order to be comested.

The S`ikh eucharist is sweet.

feet indent the site for a pool

"feet scooped out the sacred pool in Heliopolis." (Coffin Texts, spell 7 -- MS, p. 290)

"created the well [Hippo-krene] by stamping with his moon-shaped hoof." (GM 75.b)

episodes in the Contendings of H.R and SWTH

MS, p. 295 "a race in stone boats."

"Anarajapura large stone boats" (9CO, p. xc) are aequivalent to "the oracle boats of Egypt" (9CO, p. lxxxix).

Maya whistling dwarf-deities travel in "stone boats" (MNAM&R, p. 111).

"Korean myths ... feature people ... sailing in stone boats." (BHK -- "KP")

There is a legendary "stone boat" in tales of the Aran Isles ("JSSB").

"the exposure of Hathor [H.T-H.R]'s private parts."

During the voyage of pilgrimage to Boubastis, "as they sail they come opposite to any city on the way ... some of the women ... stand up and pull up their garments." (H:E)

Cupbeareress-goddess Hebe "indecently exposed herself to the guests and, as a result, lost her job of serving." ("ChZ&H")

9CO = IX Congress of Orientalists

MNAM&R = Gary R. Varner : Mysteries of Native American Myth and Religion., 2007.

BHK = A Brief History of Korea.

"KP" = "Korea, Prehistory ..."

"JSSB" ='s+stone+boat%3A+Celtic+analogues+and+popular+mythology.-a0122875132

H:E = The 2nd book of the Histories by Herodotos, styled Euterpe

"ChZ&H" = "Children of Zeus and Hera"