Pilgrims of the Andes






The Andes Reconsecrated



Ordering the Microcosm



The Cult of Qoyllur Rit>i



The Cult of Wank>a


pp. 58-9 Taki Onqoy

p. 58

"During the 1560s a millenarian movement swept through the central Andes ... . Known as the Taki Onqoy, literally ‘dancing sickness’, the movement seems to have had its origins in the province of Huamanga (present-day Ayacucho) and to have spread eastward to ... Cusco, southward to Arequipa ..., and northward to Lima (Millones 1973, 87). The florescence of the movement coincided with widespread preparations among the Indians for an armed uprising against the Spaniards, masterminded by the rebel ... at Willkabamba."

p. 59

"In the Taki Onqoy, the cult of the wak>as was transformed ... to a person-bound religiosity. ... now they entered into the bodies of adepts of the cult, inducing trance and ecstasy and stimulating their hosts to sing and dance in their honor. Possessed of the spirits of the wak>as, these adepts went about the land preaching ... the forthcoming defeat of the Christian God by the resurrected deities. In fulfillment of this prophecy, all the wak>as would unite and congregate in tow batallions, one at Late Titicaca in the mountains, the other at Pachakamaq on the coast".


"There were further outbreaks of nativist millenarianism in the central Andes – the Muru Onqoy in Aymaraes in 1590-91, for example, ... and a movement in Arequipa in 1600 triggered by an earthquake and a volcanic eruption (Curatola 1978, 69-71)."

p. 273, n. 3:4

indigenous resistance to Christianity : "Many were haunted for years by dreams and visions of the wak>as, who assumed the form of attractive sexual partners enticing them back to the old religion (Stern 1982, 182)."

Millones 1973 = Luis Millones : "Un movimiento nativista del siglo XVI : el Taki Onqoy". In :- Juan M. Ossio (ed.) : Ideologi`a Mesia`nica del Mundo Andino. Lima.

Curatola 1978 = Marco Curatola : "El culto de crisis ‘Moro Onqoy’ ". ETNOHISTORIA Y ANTROPOLOGI`A ANDINA 1:179-92. Lima : Museo Nacional de Historia.

Stern 1982 = Steve J. Stern : Peru’s Indian Peoples and the Challenge of Spanish Conquest : Huamanga to 1640. Madison : U of WI Pr.

pp. 71-2 Tunupa

p. 71

"southern Titicaca ... area was the setting for the exploits of Tunupa, the Aymara deity ... . ... Tunupa ... went preaching at Carabuco, an Aymara village on the eastern side of the lake. There he was attacked ... and stabbed to death. His body was placed on a raft on the lake, which was blown by the wind with such force against the bank that it opened up an outlet (desaguadero). The raft was carried along the resultant

p. 72

channel to Aullagas, where the waters passed underground, and there the body ... remained (Ramos Gavila`n [1621, book I, chap. 8] 1976, 31-32)."

Ramos Gavila`n = Alonso Ramos Gavila`n : Historia del Ce`lebre Santuario de Nuestra Sen~ora de Copacabana. La Paz : Academia Boliviana de la Historia.

p. 127 tellurian powers

"First, there are the apus, the spirits of mountains, lakes, marshes ... . ... The apu of the tallest mountain in the region, Ausankati, is expressly ... creator of all living things."

"Second, there are the n~aupa machus (Qu.) ‘the ancients from long ago’ ... . The machus were people who lived in the age before the present one, when there was only the light of the moon to see by. They lived on the puna in round houses, chullpas, the pre-Inkaic stone tumuli ... . The machus had been proud and arrogant, and ... the creator, decided to destroy them by raising the sun in the sky. The heat shriveled the bodies of the machus, and they fled to the shade of the jungle. Some never made it, and their desiccated corpses are the pre-Columbian mummies, machu tullu ‘ancient bones’, that are occasionally found in holes and caves in the area to this day. ... The wind that blows from the puna at dusk {cf. Yohualli Ehecatl} might carry the soq>a machu (soq>a ‘dangerous, malevolent’), which ... promotes the fertility of the crops".

p. 128 world-ages


"This ... model of time has a ... correlate in the triad

"The machus belong to the first age, the age of ... the moon.


ukhupacha ‘the underworld or the world within’,

Their demise ushered in the present age of runa ‘people’ ... and the sun. The second age began with the appearance of the first human being, Inka Manko Qhapaq, and will end on ... a great flood.


kaypacha ‘this world’, and

This in turn will herald the third and final age".


hanaqpacha the ‘afterworld or the world above’."

p. 277, n. 6:4 "For a finely detailed mythohistorical sequence, see R. Gow and Condori (1976)."

Gow & Condori 1976 = Rosalind Gow & Bernabe` Condori : Kay Pacha. BIBLIOTECA DE LA TRADICIO`N ORAL ANDINA, no. 1. Cusco : Centro de Estudios Rurales Andinos.

p. 128 funebrial rites

"To assure the smooth passage of the ... ‘soul’ to the hanaqpacha, the correct funerary rites must be performed ... .

Equally important is the ritual laundering of the entire wardrobe of the deceased person eight

{cf. the 8 cemeteries of the rN~in-ma and other Vajra-yana sects}

days after death;

{cf. the Roman (Etruscan) 8-day (novena) cycle}

if this is not done, the soul will return to complain."

"Many households keep the skull of the father or grandfather of the head of the household in the storehouse of the farmstead, having exhumed it some years after burial."

{The Asmat of New Guinea carry around a ancestor’s skull with them.}

pp. 128-9 destiny of souls of the dead

p. 128

"If a person dies having committed ... incest, or meets with a violent death such that the body is ... badly disfigured, he or she becomes a ...


kukuchi (Qu.)

{cf. the Maya hieroglyphic deity-name /KUKC^an/. Kukc^an is aequivalent to Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, a committer of incest [one of the Peruvian reasons for non-admittance into hanaqpacha].}


a being that has been denied entry to hanaqpacha and is condemned to pass a twilight existence in kaypacha, the land of the living, trapping the unwary in lonely spots and feeding off their flesh. ...

pp. 128-9

Spatially, these beings are associated with the mountain peaks and punas, because these places are closest to the hanaqpacha, which they are ever striving to reach."

{The hunchbacks and midgets accompanying Quetzalcoatl into exile are likewise associated with mountains, having frozen to death there.}

pp. 129-30 particular apu-s


p. 129

p. 130


"Apu Ausankati is referred to as the hatun apu, the great or chief apu"

"Ausankati is recognized throughout the Cusco region as the most power mountain spirit of all."


"Pachatusan ,,,, ‘stanchion of the world’, also known as Ata`s, tallest mountain in the vicinity of Cusco city".

"Pachatusan ... is reputed to contain much gold – it was mined intensively ... – on account of which the apu is though to be ... fiercely protective of its underground treasure".


"Ch>ayn~akoto, ‘crop of the linnet’, the glacial mountain range north of Calca".

"The apus of the twin peaks of the Ch>ayn~akoto chain, Sawasiray and Pitusiray, also enjoy wide renown."


"Intiwatana, ‘anchor-point of the sun’, ... a steep escarpment behind the village of Pisac".

"Apu Intiwatana ... is regarded by Qamawarans as a peacable, irenic spirit, a reputation it enjoys elsewhere in the province".

p. 130 river; goddesses

"The river Vilcanota {"Willkar" (p. 129)]... is equated with the Milky Way ... in modern Quechua astronomy."

"Sipaswarkuna, ‘the young maidens’, ... four adjacent pinnacles on the mountain which is also the dwelling place of Apu Sosiana."

pp. 137, 150, 155 sexual jokery

p. 137

"As the party progressed there would be sexual joking and erotic mimicry, with the women repulsing the advances of the men by beating them with ... whips decorated with colored wool, the men responding with expressions of mock ecstasy."

p. 150

"jokes, pranks, and sexual innuendo were the order of the day."

p. 155

"women struck out at men with their whips".

pp. 138, 141 raping of women

p. 138

ritual battle at Chuychallana : "Abducted women risked rape".

p. 141

central Andes generally : "Annual intergroup duels ... are supposed to involve the capture and rape of women from the opposing side."

pp. 208-9, 218 legend of Qoyllur Rit>i (Qollariy)

p. 208

at Sinakara, "members of the party were blinded by a brilliant light ... and were unable

p. 209

to approach him. ... They saw the silhouette of the child from afar, ... again radiating a blinding light. ... As the figure moved toward a rock, the priest reached out to catch him but found that he had instead caught hold of a tayanka bush."

p. 218

[story from Ch>eqa Pupuja community, Aza`ngaro province, Puno department] "Qollariy [must eat] a sack of toasted beans. Qollariy seduced Inkariy’s daughter, a distraction that ... meant that thenceforth beans and maize grow only on the Cusco side of la Raya. ... Inkariy violates Qollariy’s wife in the snow and makes her bleed. The blood is still issuing ... . ... northwest of La Raya, there are in fact hot springs containing ... deposits of hematite" [‘blood-stone’].

pp. 212, 217 myth of Apu Ausankati

p. 212

[from Paqchanta community] "In the time of darkness, ... Apu Ausankati ... would grow in competition with other peaks : Aqhanaku, Kallankati, Pachatusan and other ... . Apu Ausankati wanted to grow to the sky, and ... further, Inkariy placed an enormous heavy silver cross on his head. Then, light dawned. So if Apu Ausankati had not won the competition, today we would be living in darkness ... . When light dawned, the moon fell sick and the sun was born. Then the n~aupa machus, ancient inhabitants ..., with their eyes burned by the sun, fled to the caves in the hills, and there they remained forever."

p. 217

[from Pinchimuro (Quispicanchi)] "One of the daughters of Apu Ausankati was betrothed to a Qolla called ... Inkilli. The sons of the apu, without informing their father, plotted to ensure that their new brother-in-law would take only the livestock, not the agricultural produce, back to Qollao with him. But at the wedding, Apu Ausankati gave ... Inkilli both livestock and maize seed. ... a bird came and stole the maize, letting it drop on the Cusco side of La Raya. From that time on, maize has grown only on this side, while in Qollao there have always been plenty of animals".

pp. 218-22 sacred dance-styles

p. 218


"ukuku, also known as paulucha ... . Ukuku means ‘bear’. The ukuku dancer ... carries a rope whip, a whistle ..., and a small doll on whose behalf he begs money from strangers. ...

p. 219


The family Ursidae is represented in the region by one relict species, the spectacled bear, Tremarctos ornatus ... . ["The people of Pinchimuro claim that the first alpaca was born of an ukuku or an ukumari" (p. 280, n. 8:7).] ... Versions of this story ... all involve one or more ukumari, the ... offspring of a ... woman and a bear. ... It is widely believed ... in Mount Ausankati ... climbing the mountain, naked ... reach the silver cross near the summit, they can obtain ... from the apu ... .

p. 220


... there are the machula dancers. The machula ... old man ... sports a ... white beard, a humpback, ... and he hobbles about with the aid of a cane. ... The machula dancer embodies the harmless, comical aspect of the machu figure ... .

p. 221


... there are qhapaq qollas. Qhapaq means .rich’, ‘noble’ ... . ... . ... the qhapaq qollas are a mimetic portrayal of these traders. The qhapaq qolla costume includes ... a flat embroidered hat ...; a woolen llijlla; ... and a rope sling. ... .

p. 222


... the wayri ch>unchos ... wear a headdress and plait of orange and red macaw feathers, ... and they also carry chonta staves. ... Their leader is known as the arariwa, the Quechua word for a field guardian ... . Wayri ... means ‘chief’ in the language of the tribal Machiguenga to the northwest".

pp. 248-9 legend of Wank>a

p. 248

"a group of Indian boys from Waqoto, ... on the western side of Pachatusan, ... came upon a misti boy from Ata`s, the name given to the summit of Pachatusan. ... They gave chase, and the priest was on the point of catching him when the figure was suddenly enclaved within a crag".

p. 249

"Pachatusan ... was in fact mined in Inka times at Waqoto. the provenance of the Indian seers in the Acomayo version of the Wank>a myth. ... Today, the locals will confide that the interior of Pachatusan is an enormous gold mine, guarded by the apu of the mountain".

p. 183 legend of Tayankani

"a miraculous taytacha ... appeared in Tayankani ... . He was discovered there by two little boys ... . ... Then suddenly, as the boys looked on, the taytacha was transformed into a body inside a rock. He had died, but he still lives on."

pilgrimage : The presence of the taytacha, dead yet still living, at that particular is reason enough for going."

pp. 95, 259 legend of 5 or 3 taytacha-brethren

p. 95

"five taytachas ... : Sen~or de Wank>a, Sen~or de Qoyllur Rit>i, Sen~or de Tayankani, Sen~or de Aqcha, and Sen~or el Justo Juez. It is said that this group had journeyed from place to place and that as each brother grew tired he stopped and took up residence at the spot".

p. 259

"Sen~or de Wank>a, the oldest, was the first to tire; he stopped to rest and immediately became enclaved in a crag at the spot.

{[MBh 17:2] There fell while mountain-climbing :- Nakula (‘Mongoose’, the divine animal protecting riches [cf. the gold within Pachatusan]),


Sen~or el Justo Juez ... was passing through the Qewar gorge when he me a woman. He asked her the way to Roqa Moqo ‘Hill of Rocks’ ..., but she did not reply. For this reason, ... he never reached it. Exhausted by his climb, he stopped to rest at a spot called Tayta Qora ‘God’s Thicket’, where he miraculously entered a rock. ...

Phalguna/Dhanan-~jaya/Arjuna (who was praeferred by the heroine Yajn~a-seni/Drau-padi),


Sen~or de Sani, for his part, walked on toward Wankarani. But he too failed to reach his destination. Stopping to rest, he also miraculously entered a rock".


MBh 17 = Maha-bharata (Mahapras.t.hanika Parvan) http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m17/m17002.htm

Michael J. Sallnow : Pilgrims of the Andes : Regional Cults in Cusco. Smithsonian Institution Pr, Washingtn (DC),1987.