Chapter 2

pp. 211-212 origin of elements and of planets

p. 211

"From that time on, all beings would be in good health at the same time or would fall ill at the same time and none of them, therefore, was able to take care of the others. Nang Itthang Gaiya Sangkasi and Pu Sangaiya Sangkasi, the man {immortal god} and woman {immortal goddess} had made the world, ... said : "... Let us create harmful planets (Papagaha [papa-graha]) that would influence the destiny of beings". ["only ... planets Mars, Saturn, Uranus [Ketu] and Rahu, are considered harmful." (fn. 2)]

... they placed in the house of the zodiac the elements of fire, water, wind, mineral and ferrous elements [these include the "elements stone and iron ... . The manuscript of Wat Padaed adds the element iron to the list. The element iron is taken into account by astrologers in their calculations for casting a horoscope." (fn. 3)]

and laid out the eight planets, as follows :

p. 212

Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Rahu-Ketu {when Rahu and Ketu together are counted as a single planet, as here, Svarbhanu is intended}, the Sun, the Moon and Mars".

p. 212 another set of deaths, in a different sequence

p. 212

"afterwards Itthi, the children’s mother, reaching the end of her life, died. Pullinga, the husband[,] carried his spouse’s body to the cemetery, staked out a site by planting a Thong puang [species of Erythrina (fn. 3)] tree and offered food daily. Shortly after, Napumsaka, the hermaphrodite, died in turn. Pullinga placed his body in some place and cared no more about it. ... Time went by and Pullinga, the father, died. The thirteen children went on living".

p. 212, fn. 2

distinction between events of 1st chapter and events of 2nd chapter : "The three members of the family belong to the second generation. In the first generation, it is the husband, who, killed by the hermaphrodite, died first, and in the second, it is the wife who died first." {Actually, if this be a distinct set of events, then at least one other generation, that of the 13 siblings, would seem to have intervened between these two sets of events.}

p. 213 various animals which are set free in order to cure persons of diverse ages

age of patient

animal which is set free












raja-simha ("royal lions")

pp. 214-215 metempsychosis as trees or as animals; and in Hell

p. 214

"Nang Itthang Gaiya Sangkasi and Pu Sangaiya Sangkasi noticed that those beings who were reborn as humans lived first as trees [all of these as cultivated trees, such as fruit-bearing trees] . ... Those beings who had not lived before in trees were not reborn in wombs of human beings, but of animals. Knowing that, the couple who made the world placed [the elements (earth, fire, wind, water, mineral, and ferrous elements) in those trees}, one element per tree." Being incarnated in those trees while an "element" was in it, cause the subsequently thus-redincarnated humans to become vicious.

p. 215

The 6 Sensory "Faculties (Indriya) ... led them to create, daily, their own hell."

pp. 215-216 the 1st male human and the 1st female human who were reborn as deities in Heaven

p. 215

"There was a family with one son. After the death of the father [and the mother], the child was chased away ... . ... the boy set off for the forest and settled down on his own at the foot of the Tabek tree (Pinus merkusii). ... If travellers would come to meet him, he would given them, according to their desires, something to eat ... . ...


His exemplary behaviour, allowed him to be reborn as a divinity (Deva-putta [Deva-putra]) living in the Sakhien tree (Homalium grandiflorum?). He was named Pat.hamadevo. ... he was the first [being {mortal} to be reborn] as Devaputta."

p. 216

"There was ... woman. She had no name, for[,] at that time, human beings were not yet endowed with speech. She lived not very far from the home of a blind man who used to go to the river to lay in a supply of drinkable water. ... the woman cleared the way for him and put a rattan handrail all along so that the blind man would be able to find his way to the river. Thanks to the merits she thus acquired, she was born again, after her death, as a divinity (Devata) living in Yom hin tree (Chukrasia tabularis) and was named Muladhita."

{N.B. neither of these 2 species of trees is among the species described (on p. 214) as having been infected with the "elements" which caused any human redincarnated, as one of those species, to become vicious.}

pp. 217-218 destruction & restoration of the world; world-ages

p. 217

Nan Itthan Gaiya Sankasi and Pu Sangaiya Sankasi said : "Let’s destroy it [the world] by fire [so that] it will ... be possible to assess the number of beings [by whom there are] worthy deeds (Bodhisambhara ["Sambhara means ‘Reserve, Fullness, Fortune’ ... the Perfection (Parami) or the innumerable Merits (Pun~n~a) that can only be those of ... a Bodhisatta." (fn. 1)]) which could have been performed.

... the couple set up the sixteen celestial storeys of Brahma’s heaven and stopped the breathing of Manosila, the gem elephant. In the process, the clouds that covered the world stopped gathering and water could no more be found. As the rain ceased falling, the palace of the Sun ... set fire on the palace of the moon which entered its sign {house} of the zodiac. During its race, when the palace of the Moon came across that of a planet, it burnt it. One after another, the palaces of all the planets, including the one of Saturn, were set on fire. ... the heat released by the fire of the Sun dried up the oceans. The whole earth was burnt and the flames reached the Abhassara storey of Brahma’s heaven.


After the fire had wiped out everything, the couple who had made the earth, had Manosila, the gem elephant, to breathe again. In the process, clouds gathered and spread over a space of one hundred thousand Kot.i cakkaval.a [cakra-val.a]. The rains started falling and the water reached up to the celestial Abhassara storey. ... when the water reached Abhassara, a strong wind blew and swept across the

p. 218

heaven of Brahma, the celestial storeys [of the world of desires] and the earth, which became again what they were before.

... after the fire had destroyed the Tiravatthakappa, the Kappa [kalpa-s] that followed one another were ...


one Asankheyyamahakappa, [A-samkhyeya-maha-kalpa],


one Mahakathanakappa,


five Padumakappas [Padma-kalpa-s],


three Pun.d.arikakappas,


nine Kumudakappas,


eight Uppalakappas [Utpala(Ud-pala)-kalpa-s],


three Sogandhikakappas,


one Ninnahutakappa,


six Kot.i and one hundred thousand Mahakappas."

pp. 218-219 further 2 metempsychoses of Prathama-deva ; an interval consisting of sets of kalpa-s

p. 218

"Then came a Kappa called Brahmakappa. During the Brahmakappa, the Devaputta Pat.hamadevo was reborn in a family. ... During his life, he could utter only the words ‘o o, e e’. [Before he invented these words, "human beings were not yet endowed with speech." (p. 216)] He did not know who is parents were and could not tell day from night. {I.e., he had, in his 2-word vocabulary, no word for ‘parent’, nor for ‘day’, nor for ‘night’.} ... He had but two things in mind : the cool season and the hot season. {Was /o o/ the word for ‘cool season’, and /e e/ the word for ‘hot season’?}

... the child took care of the elderly and of his parents. During the cool season, he would bring them firewood and would make a fire. ... In the rainy season, he built huts to shelter them. He also built roads so

p. 219

that human beings could go back and forth. {Were these the first inventions of fire, huts, and roads among humans? – In Chinese mythology, Huan-ti (the ‘Yellow Emperor’) discovered how to make fire (by drilling – ChM, p. 43), and first "established ... houses" (ChM, p. 48).} ...

Pat.hamadevo, after his death, was born again in Tavatimsa heaven as a Devaptta called Indra. Endowed with ... a sapphire green [blue] body, he had four goddesses around him."

This kalpa "was followed by


two Asankheyyas and


six Mahakathanakappas,


nine Sogandhikakappas,


ten Avathakakappas,


twelve Ababakappas,


eight Ahahakappas,


four Nirabbudankappas,


five Ambuddhakappas and


six Kot.ikappas."

ChM = Anne Birrell : Chinese Mythology. John Hopkins U Pr, 1993.

p. 219 yet further 2 metempsychoses of Prathama-deva ; an interval consisting of sets of kalpa-s

"Then came the Pun.n.asankheyyakappa [Purn.a-samkhyeya-kalpa]. Devaputta Indra was reborn there as a boy. ... the boy had just begun to speak the language of humans. {Was he the inventor of the 1st reasonably complete language for humans?} He knew who his parents were, he knew the ‘self’ and could say : "So-and-so is my father". He could tell day from night, good from evil, but had not reached yet Enlightenment. {I.e., the language of his epoch included words having such meanings as ‘parent’, ‘day’, ‘night’, ‘good’, and ‘evil’; as well as personal names and personal pronouns.} [Howbeit, there was, as of yet, no praecept "to abstain from unlawful sexual intercourse." (fn. 1)]

After his death, he was reborn in Brahma heaven and was called Mahaparisuddhabrahma".

This kalpa "was followed by

four Asankheyyakappas,

nine Kathanakappas,

ten Padumakappas,

five Ambuddhakappas,

sixteen Akkhobhen.ikappas [Aks.obhyan.i-kalpa-s] and

two Ninnahutakappas,

seven Dhikakappas and

one hundred thousand Mahakappas."

pp. 220-221 yet further 2 metempsychoses of Prathama-deva and also of Muladhita; an interval consisting of sets of kalpa-s

p. 220

Then came the "Uttamakappa. Coming down from the fifth celestial storey [Nimmanarati (fn. 1)], Muladhita was born as a girl in a family. ... As for Mahaparisuddhabrahma, he was born again in a family as a boy ... . These two beings became husband and wife.

... the couple had two children. The elder, a boy, was named Pat.hamasikka; the second, a girl, was given the name of Mulapubba [Mula-purva]. ... the two children had grown up, their parents, who no longer wanted to live a secular life, left them and retired to the forest and became hermits each one on his own. ...


After their death, they were born again in Brahma world."

This kalpa "was followed by


three Asankheyyakappas,


twenty-four Mahakathanakappas,


two Padumakappas,


5 At.t.kappas [Artha-kalpa-s],

p. 220-1

nine Bindhukappas,

p. 221

sixty Akkhobhen.ikappas,


one Ninnahutakappa,


ninety Kot.ikappas and


one hundred thousand Mahakappas."

pp. 221-223 Prathama-deva becometh a prati-eka-buddha; Mula-dhita becometh a male

p. 221

Then came the Muladhikakappa (Muladhika-kalpa). "After her husband’s death, she [Mula-dhita] went on living with her children, the elder, a girl called Pubbamulika [Purva-mulika] [,] and the younger, a boy, Pat.hamajoti [Prathama-jyoti]. {That these events are intended as distinct from (subsequent to) the events of p. 220, can be ascertained not only by the differences in the names of the progeny, but also in the reverse order of their births.}


As for Pat.hamadevo, who had been her husband in previous lives, he was reborn in a family ... . No sooner was he out of his mother’s womb than he spoke to his parents. Astounded by this extraordinary phenomenon, the relatives gave him the name of Paccekabuddha [Prati-eka-buddha]. At the age of seven, the child ... went to live alone in a quiet place ... for eight years and ... reached the state of Arahant, saw his innumerable previous lives being spent {a prati-eka-buddha can apparently know merely his own past lives, not the past lives of others} and achieved Enlightenment which [would] enable him to know, from then, on the past and future ... .

[While] the Paccekabuddha went one day to the river for a bath ... Thieves robbed him of his yellow robe (Civara).

p. 222

... the Paccekabuddha went to the woman [Mula-dhita]. ... [She said,] "... my beloved husband is dead ... ." [The Paccekabuddha said,] "... Your husband ... has become a crab and lives with his spouse in a pool. ..." {If true, this would imply that the crab is Prathama-deva/Prati-eka-buddha’s animal-double/alter-ego (= Aztec /tonal/).} ... She then seized the crab who nipped her fingers ... . ... The Enlightened One gave this order to the crab : "Free the fingers of the widow." At that moment, the crab let go of the woman’s hand. ... The

p. 223

woman ... donated a yellow robe and made the following wish : "Let me become a Saint, like you!" ... Upon this thought all her feminine attributes disappeared. He was changed into a man and became a Paccekabuddha".


Anatole-Roger Peltier (ed.); He’le`ne Turquet de Beauregard (transl. into English) : Pat.hamulamuli : the Origin of the World in the Lan Na Tradition. Chiang Mai, 1991.