p. 9 false beards

Codex Nuttall

Egypt; China

p. 10 Toltec immolation of "men of fair hair and white faces" {albinism?}

Sahagu`n; Ixtlilxochitl; Tezozomoc

{Uganda; Burundi; Zai:re; Tanganyika}

Luc De Heusch : Sacrifice in Africa. Manchester U Pr, 1985. p. 156 [Bambara at Segu]

p. 27 grain-gods

hieroglyphic Maya maize-god Hun-Nal-Ye

Egyptian grain-god Osiris

{Ugaritic grain-god DGN}

p. 28 body-parts of dismembered god were placed on tree

Popol Vuh god Hun Hun-ahpu


p. 28 spittle of god produced progeny

of Popol Vuh god

of Egyptian god Atum

p. 29 divine mosquito

Popol Vuh

{C^ukc^i mosquito as spirit-helper (OShL, p. 332)}

OShL = Iu. B. Simchenko : "Ordinary Shamanic Life". In :- Andrei A. Znamenski : Shamanism in Siberia : Russian Records of Indigenous Spirituality. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003. pp. 330-334

p. 29 (with p. 43, n. 27) dark, gated netherworld for the dead

Popol Vuh


p. 30 Ursa Maior constellation is divine amputated foot/leg

of Aztec god Tezcatli-poca

of Egyptian god Seth

p. 33 corpse of grain-god germinated when buried

Aztec god Centeotl

Egyptian god Osiris

pp. 34-35 sacrificial human victim as substitute for king

p. 35 Classic Maya

p. 34 at Egyptian Sed [= Jubilee]

pp. 36-37 the dead symbolized by fish

p. 36 Popol Vuh

p. 37 Egyptian

p. 38 planet Venus is described as ‘sun’


Egyptian Pyramid Texts

p. 47 world is created from dismembered monster

Histoyre du Mechique

Akkadian goddess Tiamat

p. 47 Council of Deities

Maya "Vase of the Seven Gods"


{mt. Olympos, etc.}

pp. 49-50 Stretching the Cord

p. 50 Lacandon; Tovar Calendar

p. 49 Egyptian

pp. 50-51 ritual circumambulation

p. 51 Dura`n

p. 50 Egyptian

p. 53 kindling new fire for jubilee

Aztec, every 52 years

Egyptian "Lighting the Flame"

p. 54 additional 5 epagomenal days were added after 360-day year

Aztec nemontemi


p. 55 raising a world-pillar

Maya, at end of each tun

Egyptian DD-pillar

p. 55 periodic wearing of simple clothing by royalty

Aztec (according to Mendieta & Sahagu`n)


{Roman simple living during Saturnalia}

p. 63 hero was swallowed by huge fish

at Colima

Hebrew Jonah

{True History by Lucianus}

p. 64, Fig. IV.7 god holding snake at sea

Codex Dresdensis

{Moses holding rod (= serpent) at Red Sea}

p. 66 unborn souls of humans as fishes [p. 69 in giving birth, Aztec woman captured the soul of a child (cf. p. 66, Figs. IV.11 & IV.12)]

"jeweled fish" of Cinteotl (according to Sahagu`n)

{"souls of Israel ... , symbolized by fish" (N) in Qabbalah (teaching metempsychosis)

N =

p. 71 fish-in-hand glyph [p. 70 baboons capture fishes in net, in vignette to Egyptian Book of the Dead , Spell 153 {are these "baboons" intended to be bears or the like?}]

"the fish-in-hand rite ... to conjure up a deceased ancestor"

{"the soul of the Yakut shaman was turned into a fish" – "When a great shaman is initiated his relatives die out. Dead relatives serve as posts (wooden columns pointed in the bottom part) of dam across the river." (WhF)}

WhF =

p. 72 cracking open of tortoise-shell

Classic Maya [also on p. 33]

{in Chinese tortoise-shell divination}

p. 73 divine grain-fish

Classic Maya

{god DGN (of grain at Ugarit; of fish in Palestine}

pp. 78-79 rejuvenation of humans by serpent

p. 78 Maya

p. 79 Egyptian Book of Gates

{Sumerian Gilgames^ having herb of immortality acquired from him by serpent}

p. 79 "pulled backward through the body of an enormous serpent ... . They enter the serpent’s tail as ... gray-haired, infirm individuals ..., and then they emerge from the serpent’s mouth as children."

pp. 87-88 tree-flowers as "souls of progeny"

p. 87 Maya flowers as progeny

{Daoist flowering tree in paradise indicative of as-of-yet-unborn progeny}

p. 88 Maya flowering cross-tree

{Rosicrucian rosy cross}

p. 89 ascension of frog from god’s head

Classic Maya (Piedras Negras) "frog headdress" of man

{frog-goddess is clinging to face of moon-god (in Sahaptin myth)}

"with a ladder"

{Chinese toad-goddess C^en-O ascended to moon}

pp. 98-99 human pilaster surmounted by feathers

p. 99 (Fig. VI.5) Olmec anthropoid figurine wearing apron emblazoned with pilaster surmounted by feathers

p. 98 Egyptian DD (human spinal column as pilaster surmounted by feathers)

{Bodish >pho-ba caerimony of piercing with feather-quill site of spiritual essence ascended via spinal column to apex of scalp}

p. 99 quaternity of pilasters

(Fig. VI.7, Arroyo Pesquero) Olmec 4 pilasters with anthropoid holder of horizontal serpent

Egyptian 4 branches of DD

{/D.aDi^/ ‘be irate’ (LA-L 3:10a) – cf. irate snake, about to strike a victim}

LA-L = Georgii Wilhelmi Freytagii : Lexicon Arabico-Latinum. Beirut, 1975.

p. 104 wind-god lifted sky

Quetzalcoatl as wind-god (Historia de los Mexicanos por Sus Pinturas)

Egyptian wind-god S^W (according to Pyramid Texts)

pp. 116-117 simian god as scribe

p. 117 Classic Maya monkey-god as patron of writing

p. 116 Egyptian baboon-god as scribe

{man transformed into as monkey as scribe (<arabian 1001 Nights)}

pp. 117-118 net over head of deity

p. 117 Maya god Pawah-tun (‘net-stone’) = "God N", wearing hair-net

4 baboons hold nets over their heads (chapter CLIII of Egyptian Book of the Dead, at 9th Gate of Netherworld)

p. 118 (Fig. VII, 5, at Copan) god Pawah-tun upholding sky

{Daoist series of sky-nets separating human world from divine world}

p. 118 numbers of years (regnal) written on leaves of tree

Classic Maya

of Egyptian Ished (YS^D) tree (IT)

Sumerian MU plant as ‘year’-hieroglyph

"grows out of the side of this particular scribe (Fig. VII.6)" [out of his lung?]

{YS^D tree for Book of Breathings (TBB 3:8-10)}

{cf. counting of breathings in Hindu yoga}

IT =


p. 120 Land of the Black and the Red

"The Aztecs called the Maya lowlands the Land of the Black and the Red" [Tlillan Tlapallan]

{Egyptian Kemet (‘Black Land’ = Lower Egypt, i.e. the Nile Delta), Des^ret (‘Red Land’ = Upper Egypt)}

p. 134 arched sky

Codex Nuttall p. 19

Egyptian sky-goddess NW-t

p. 135 rabbit in moon

Classic Maya (at Yaxchilan); Codex Borgia

Mesopotamia & Egypt

{rabbit is moon as former incarnation of Buddha}

pp. 141-142 goddess wearing dotted crosshatch-patterned dress

p. 142 (Fig. VIII.46) at Tenochtlitlan

p. 141 (Fig. VIII.45) Hellenic goddess Hera

p. 144 divine tree’s teat nursing the dead

Tzotzil of Chamula


pp. 150-151 air-god lifting sky

p. 150 (Fig IX.1) air-god Ehecatl (Codex Vindobonensis)

p. 151 Egyptian air-god S^W

p. 155 serpent-temple

Fig. IX.12 at Coatepec (Codex Azcatitlan)

temple of S^lomoh "incorporated sculpted serpents"

p. 161 the 9 levels of the Netherworld


9 deities ascended 9 stairs (Egyptian Book of Gates)

p. 162, Fig. X.4 "Four Skybearers from columns in the Castillo, Chichen Itza"

Castillo, Chichen Itza [numbered from left to right]

{skybearers in Codex Borgia, upper register of pp. 49-52}

1. wearing pectoral with 2 appendages

p. 49 wearing pectoral with 2 appendages

2. tied round burden

p. 50 tied round pot

3. wearing curled snailshell

p. 51 wearing curled snailshell

4. wearing beaded necklace

p. 52 wearing round beads

p. 163 hound as guide for the dead

Lacandon Maya


p. 164 deer carrying the sun on its back

Yucatec west = Deer sun"; Codex Borgia

Hittite "anthropomorphic creature with deer antlers pushing the sun before it shows itself."

p. 165 back-to-back felines

Fig. X.9 at Uxmal

Fig. X.8 Egyptian ‘yesterday’ & ‘to-morrow’

p. 165 birth of god from flower

Fig. X.11 at Haina, Canpeche

Fig. X.10 Egyptian Nefer-tem

{Maha-yana, in Sukha-vati (paradise)}

pp. 166-167 the souls of the dead become stars

p. 167 Quiche`

p. 166 the dead as "Imperishable Stars" (Pyramid Texts)

Hebrew (Book of Daniel 12:2-3) {also Nus.ayri^}

pp. 167-168 miniature wheeled baked-clay animals as funerary offerings



p. 172 hand as jaw of human

Classic Maya

{in many European sculptures, such as "The Thinker", the subject is resting the jaw on the hand}

{hand covering mouth (as, in Codex Borgia p. 74) of ahuiateotl, god of laughter, is indicative of polite etiquette, in one’s covering one’s mouth with one’s hand while it is open in laughter}

Diane E. Wirth : Parallels : Mesoamerican and Ancient Middle Eastern Traditions. Stonecliff Publishing, St. George (UT), 2003.


Kelley, 2008, p. 463b

"The similarities between Mesoamerica and Egypt include more than thirty common deities. These include


Monkey scribes;

Frog Goddess of childbirth;

Grain God as catfish and as acrobat;

Direction Gods who support the sky;

Vulture, Queen of Heaven, Mother, Sky-supporter;

Human or Skull-headed Birds;

The Star Scorpion Deities;

The Double-headed Node Passage Snake;

The Infinity Snake;

The Feathered Snake; and

The Black God of Medicine."

David H. Kelley : "Archaeoastronomy". In :- Deborah N. Pearsall : ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ARCHAEOLOGY. Academic Pr (imprint of Elsevier), 2008. pp. 451-464