O`ri`s,a` Devotion as World Religion, 2-4

Contents

#

Cap.

Auth.

PP.

2.

Insights into Ifa’ Orature

Rowland Abiodun

51-69

3.

In What Tongue?

O,la’sope O. Oye`la’ra`n

70-83

4.

Prolegomenon to a Philosophy

Olufemi Taiwo

84-105

5.

Place-Names and Sacred Icons

Cornelius O. Adepegba

106-27

6.

Religious and Cultural Hegemony

Flora S. Kaplan

128-63

7.

Ritual Realities in Lagos Region

Sandra T. Barnes

164-90

8.

Pathways of O,`s,un

Diedre T. Badejo

191-201

20.

Sacred Music of S^ango

Jose` F. P. de Barros

400-15

21.

Yoru`ba’ Sacred Songs

Jose` J. de Carvalho

416-36

22.

Axexe^ Funeral Rites

Reginaldo Prandi

437-47

23.

From Oral to Digital

George E. Brandon

448-69

24.

Internet Diaspora

Joseph M. Murphy

470-84

25.

Transnationalization of Yoru`ba’

Rita Laura Segato

485-512

26.

Gendre in Yoru`ba’ Culture

J. Lorand Matory

513-58

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2. (pp. 51-69) "Insights into Ifa’ Orature and Sculptural Repertoire".

pp. 51-3 proverbs and their application

p. 51

"E,`la` was the first to speak. ... E,`la` was the first to communicate." {words are primary method for communication}

p. 52

"Olo’du`mare` ... created Ho,`o,`-ro,` (or O,`ro,`, the contracted form of Ho,`o,`-ro,`) that descended from o,`run, the otherworld. O,`ro,` is a combination ... composed of o,gbo,’n (wisdom), i`mo,` (knowledge), and o`ye (understanding).

It was not, however, until O,`ro,`’s descent on earth, when it became E,`la` ... . ... E,`la` ... speaks through o`we (proverbs) ... . ... Pa o`we which literally means "to crack o`we" (the proverb). is related to E,`la`, which is "that which splits ...". {words make distinctions in meanings}

p. 53

"When O,`ro,` is lost (elusive), O`we is summoned to find" it. {when meanings are elusive, metaphors elucidate meanings}

pp. 53-6 divination by palm-nuts

p. 53

"Ikin, the sixteen oil-palm nuts (Elais guineensis idolatrica) of Ifa’ divination, are the most important objects in the Ifa’ ... . Most babala’wo (Ifa’ priests, literally, "father of secrets") possess ... ikin".

p. 54

Diviners "commission an o,po,’n-Ifa’ (Ifa’ tray)" in order "to begin their professional careers."

p. 55

divination-tray : "At the beginning of a divination session, the Ifa’ diviner will draw a crossroads pattern on the surface as a sign that this is a place of meeting between human concerns and spiritual powers."

p. 56

"all o,po,’n-Ifa’ must carry a symbolic representation of E`s,u`, ... known as Osetura, on their borders to acknowledge E`s,u`’s inescapable impact ... as "... One who belongs to two opposing camps without feeling any shame," ... to the maintenance of the precarious balance between ... powers of the universe."

{according to the Mahabharata, Kr.s.n.a (‘Shiny Black’) ["shiny" (p. 53) "black as (the ikin of) Ifa’ " (p. 54)] belonged simultaneously to both the two opposing camps (Kaurava and Pan.d.ava) : his army assisting one (Kaurava) and his personal bodily service the other (Pan.d.ava).}

pp. 57-60 divining-knocker {Because "to tap" hath also the more typical signification ‘to extract a liquid (as, e.g., maple-tree sap or palm-tree sap)’, therefore perhaps a different term from "tapper", such as "rapper" or "knocker", ought to be employed instead.} {"destiny" may be likened to the "time-cone" of the special theory of relativity}

p. 57

"By gently tapping its pointed end against the o,po,’n, the priest uses the i`ro,’ke,’, or divining tapper, to invoke O,`ru’nmi`la` during divination. With a clapper or bell at its open end, the i`ro,’ke,’ is usually carved in ivory .... . ...

 

The tappers ... have ... a middle section often carved as ... a kneeling female figure holding her breasts."

{cf. Hellenic goddess Hera of galactic fame; her teats are (as, in English slang) "knockers"}

 

"the inner spiritual head or destiny in heaven, ... all ori’ are conical in shape ... . ... Generally translated as "destiny" ..., the ori’ is here symbolized by ... the uppermost segment of the i`ro,’ke,’. This plain, conical part ... on top ... is ... ori’ inu’ (the inner head), an invisible counterpart symbolizing one’s destiny ... . ...

{cf. the "numerous conehead gods and goddesses" ("B&HC") of the H.ittites, and the Nubian ("CHS") and Maya ("EL&PN") "cone head" deformation}

 

This arrangement, whereby the ori’ inu’ [inner head] sits above the ori’ o`de [outer head], is called a`ya`nmo,’ (that which is affixed to one)."

{cf. the European "wizards’ cone" hat, and the cone-hatted gods depicted in the Codex Borgiauus Mexicanus (p. 36 etc.)}

p. 58

"this i`ro,’ke,’ Ifa’ (divination tapper) ... consists of a figure with an elaborate headdress ..., holding a horse-tail fly-whisk."

{cf. [Skt.] camara (animal-tail ‘fly-whisk’)}

p. 59

"the upper segments ... recall a ... myth dealing with A`ja`la’, the great molder of ori’ in o`ru’n."

"B&HC" = "Bogazkale & Hittite Cities" http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/ana50/bogaz.html

"CHS" = "Cone Head Skulls" http://www.hiddenmysteries.org/themagazine/vol9/simon/cones.shtml

"EL&PN" = "Eccentric Lives and Peculiar Notions" http://www.robertschoch.net/Eccentric%20Lives%20Peculiar%20Notions%20CMD%20CT.htm

p. 60 parts of animals’ bodies used, to make ritual implements at the command of O,`ru’nmi`la`

when __ died

its worked _-

were (was) used as __

elephant

tusks

i`ro,’ke,’

bush-cow

hide

po`o’lo`

ira’

horns

ornament for camwood

pp. 59-60 values of ritual implements, according to Ifa’

p.

value of __

is __ cowrie shells

59

i`ro,’ke,’

1,400

60

agere

3,200

pp. 60-2 bowl for storing ritual palm-nuts

p. 60

"Caryatidic in structure, most agere consist of a bowl and a pedestal ...; they are usually carved from a single piece of ... wood".

p. 61

"Agere Ifa’, a container with lid, carved in wood ..., is used to store the sixteen sacred palm nuts (ikin Ifa’) of divination."

p. 62

A peculiar "agere Ifa’ ... lid depicts a bird grasping a shrieking lizard."

p. 63 localities for particular musical instruments

instrument which is played

in __

gongs sounded

I`po’ro’

a`ra`n were beaten

Ikija

drumsticks made melody

I`s,eri’mogbe

pp. 63-5 sacerdotal iron staff

p. 63

"Two sets of four slender conical bells are welded to the staff at different levels. The bird or birds atop the staff represent the e,ye,ka`n (the lone or one bird), referring to the pigeon sacred to Ifa’ priests, who domesticate most [domesticated] pigeons."

p. 64

"The o,`pa’ o,`re,`re,`, o,`pa’ o`s,oo`ro`, or osu`n babala’wo is an iron stall carried vertically by an Ifa` priest at important ... occasions ... . When not in use, the staff stands in one corner of the Ifa’ priest’s house."

p. 65

Unlike the "birds on the O,`sanyin staff, which are believed to represent witches or the malevolent power of the world (a`wo,n e,ye,le,),

 

the e,ye,ka`n, which is also hermaphroditic, represents ... two offspring" of the "e,ye,-ile’ (pronounced e,ye,le’), "bird of the home,"" the mythic "first pigeon e,ye,oko"".

 

The sacerdotal iron staff is a repraesentation of the mythic "healing staff" (able to cure cripples) received by O,`ru’nmi`la` from o,`run.

pp. 65, 67 bead-adorned ritual objects

p. 65

"all the icons of the babala’wo are beaded ... : the babala’wo’s

i`ku`te`-Ifa’ (the Ifa’ priest’s scepter),

ade` babala’wo (the Ifa’ priest’s crown),

a`po je`ru`gbe’ (the Ifa’ priest’s satchel),

i`ko’la`ba’ Ifa’ (the Ifa’ priest’s shoulder piece),

i`ku’npa’ Ifa’ (the

p. 67

Ifa’ priest’s arm band),

o`di`gbe Ifa’ (the casket for Ifa’), and

i`ru`ke,`re,` Ifa’ (the horse-tail fly-whisk)."

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3. (pp. 70-83) "In What Tongue?"

pp. 81-2 terminology

p.

n.

term

meaning

81

2

obi`

Cola acuminata

 

3

oro’gbo’

Garcia Kola Heckel Guttiferae

82

7

aye’

realm of human experience

 

"

o,`run

supernatural realm populated by spirits

 

8

o`ji’s,e,’

one who delivers or executes a commission

p. 73 encountre with deity of language

"O,`ru’nmi`la` and O,`sanyi`n ... seek to acquire and know the accounts and explanation for all things. ... When they reach the threshold of the precinct of O,`run, ... it is E`de` (Language/Speech), the Gatekeeper and Mouthpiece of Olo’du`mare` whom they meet ... . ... E`de` systematically reveals to them the essence and account of things ..., teaching them the mystery of each.

At the completion of the first twenty-five years ..., O,`sanyi`n ... is returning to the earth. Another twenty-five years roll by, O,`ru’nmi`la` ... heads back to the earth." On the way, midway betwixt heaven and earth, O,`sanyi`n in encountred by O,`ru’nmi`la`.

{cf. the encountre of Vis.n.u with Brahma while returning, midway on the linga of S`iva (Vamana & Linga Puran.a-s – "VShL").} {herein, Linga = E`de`; S`iva = Olo’du`mare`.}

"VShL" = http://www.vepachedu.org/lingpurana.htm

pp. 72-3, 82 offspring left at home by the 2 adventurer-gods

p. 82, n. 9

pp. 72-3 meanings of names

offspring of O,`ru’nmi`la`

 

p. 72 "Reason for appreciating __"

I`bo,ru’

Efficacy-acts-of-worship

I`bo,ye`

Success-acts-of-worship

I`bo,s,i’s,e,

Effectiveness-of-gestures –of-worship

offspring of O,`sanyi`n

 

pp. 72-3 "Appreciate with me __"

Si’sa`o’ma’aje,’

(p. 72) Effectiveness-of-all-asserted

A`i`sa`o’ma’aje,’

(p. 73) Potency-waiting to be-asserted

Sa`a`sa`a`labe,e,’rari’

Effectiveness-of-rasing-razor

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4. (pp. 84-105) "A Prolegomenon to a Philosophy of Yoru`ba’ Religion".

p. 99 olo’ri`s,a` (making o`ri`s,a`)

"Worship is one form of making o`ri`s,a`. Other forms include

"pi’pe`" (calling, invoking),

"ki’ko," (singing),

"ki’ki’ " (saluting, greeting, hailing), or

"ki’ki`" (chanting or evoking ori’ki`) of o`ri`s,a`."

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Jacob K. Olupona & Terry Rey (edd.) : O`ri`s,a` Devotion as World Religion. U of WI Pr, Madison, 2008.