O`ri`s,a` Devotion as World Religion, 23-26


23. (pp. 448-69) "From Oral to Digital ... in Yoru`ba’ Religion".

pp. 449-50 literary devices in herbology (according to Verger 1995)

p. 449

"the verbal associations established between

the name of the plant,

the medicinal or magical action it is expected to carry out, and

the odu’ Ifa’ under which the plant is classified by the babala’wo."

p. 450

"The babala’wo’s medical and divinatory knowledge are transmitted in short sentences based on the rhythm of breathing."

Verger 1995 = Pierre Fatumbi Verger : Ewe : the Uses of Plants in Yoru`ba’. Sa~o Paulo : Odebrecht.

p. 453 indigenous writing-systems

"Important repositories of non-linear {non-phonetic} graphic symbol systems : ...

Bambara, Dogon,

secret societies of the Cross River Delta of Nigeria from Calabar to Cameroon [nsibidi]."

pp. 459-60



instance of its publications

p. 459

Imole` Oluwa Institute

D. Epega : The Mystery of the Yoru`ba’ Gods. 1936.

p. 460

Ijo O,`ru’nmi`la` Ato


pp. 460, 462 other Yoru`ba’ printed religious literature

p. 460

Fama (a chiefess-priestess) : Fnndamentals of the Yoru`ba’ Religion. 1993.


Fagbenro-Beyioke : O,`ru’nmi`la`ism : the Basis of Jesusism. (1940s)

p. 462

E. Navarro & R. Varela : Folleto para uso del Santero (Obba). 1836. (published in 1959)

pp. 464-7 categories of Internet-users as devotees of Yoru`ba’ religion

p. 464

"devotees who may be in a cult house ... feel the need to confirm everything they learn there".

p. 465

"The Internet becomes a way ... to enter into contact with a trustworthy community of believers".

p. 466

"The Web Bricoleur is a product of different traditions who arranges ten on the Net in a library or assemblage".

p. 467

"Ritual chants or interpretations of odu`s need not be learned ... from the voice of the initiating master but can be learned from compact disks ... . This permits the appearance of ... the autodidact ... assisting in conferences".


24. (pp. 470-84) "O`ri`s.a` Traditions and the Internet Diaspora".

pp. 472-3 Yoruba-oriented religious organizations in the Americas


founding or website




name or address


Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye, of Hialeah, FL

482, n. 1



Ile` Axe` Opo^ Afonja`, in Salvador da Bahia


1910, by Ma~e Aninha des Santos


Egbe Lukumi, in Miami


Organization of Lukumi Unity

483, n.


pp. 473-4 other Lukumi internet websites


founder or website




name or address


OrishaNet (in Seattle)

483, n. 5



ASHE` (on-line magazine, in Spanish)

483, n. 6

http://www.ashe.com/ve/ {new address: http://www.ashe.com.ve/foro/viewforum.php?f=3 } (located in Venezuela)


Yoru`ba’ Ethnographic Archive


(abbreviated /YEA/, {formerly} hosted by University of Chicago) by Andrew Apter

"YEA" = http://web.archive.org/web/20040621221015/http://anthropology.uchicago.edu/yea/resources/resources%20-%20web%20sites.htm


25. (pp. 485-512) "Gender, Politics, and Hybridization in the Transnationalization of Yoru`ba’ Culture".

p. 489 deities of ambivalent sexual gendre

"S,a`ngo’ is syncretized with ... Saint Barbara in Cuba and ... Saint John in Brazil;

Oya (Iansa~) is said to have been male in the mythical past and turned female after becoming S,a`ngo’’s partner.

Logunede, in Bahia, is male half the year, and male and female half the year."

p. 495 arbitrary symbolic reversal of sexual gendre

"Matory shows ... "[Both] male wives and female husbands are central actors in the O,`yo,’-Yoru`ba’ Kingdom ...," ... (1994:xii);

"all women are husbands to somebody and simultaneously wives to multiple others"".

Matory 1994 = J. Lorand Matory : Sex and the Empire that is No More. Minneapolis : U of MN Pr.

p. 496 sexual intercourse during possession by a deity

"S,a`ngo’’s ... priest in state of possession, can himself ... perform sexual intercourse with a woman in the audience (Matory 1994:170)."

p. 497 relationships among some deities

"Iansan (Oya) ...is ..., because she rules over the spirits of the dead, the eguns, very much feared by S,a`ngo’. When Iansan finally agrees to marry S,a`ngo’, she puts as a condition never to be obliged to cohabit with him, since she ... abhors S,a`ngo’’s preferred food ... .

... Ogum had his throne usurped by his self-indulgent and cunning younger brother, S,a`ngo’, with the lenience of the mother, Iemoja, who ... did nothing to avoid it ... . ... . ‘This is a "kingdom" in which the mother, and not the father, has the prerogative of crowning the new king and controls officially all the matters of state."

p. 500 homo-erotism in African-American new religions

"African American religions and the presence of homosexuals in them – in Brazil (Landes 1940 ...; ... Fry ... 1986 ... ), as well as in Cuban Santeri`a (Dianteill 2000) and Haitian Voodoo (Lescot and Magloire 2002).

{As a peculiarly American (rather than of African provenience) practice, surely this phainomenon is related to, and largely derived from, the Amerindian "berdache" tradition.}

Landes 1940 = Ruth Landes : "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality". J OF ABNORMAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 25:3:386-97.

Fry 1986 = Peter Fry : "Male Homosexuality and Spirit Possession in Brazil". J OF HOMOSEXUALITY, 11, no. 3-4:137-53.

Dianteill 2000 = Erwan Dianteill : Des dieux et des signes. Paris.

Lescot & Magloire 2002 = Anne Lescot & Laurence Magloire : Des hommes et dieux. Port-au-Prince. [video]

p. 507 Exu (in recent Umbanda)

"The new, transformed Exus of the Umbanda cult care represented white {because in China white is the color of mourning for the dead?} ... and dress with elegant tuxedos and cloaks. But they are ... pimps, and inhabitants of "the night." Their elegance is itself a parody ..., a subversion ... in the performance of their underworld duties".


26. (pp. 513-58) "In There Gender in Yoru`ba’ Culture?"

pp. 514-5 O,`yo,’ official cults

p. 514

"I`gbo`ho, a former capital of the O,`yo,’ royal empire ... focuses on the priesthoods of S,a`ngo’ ... and Yemo,ja".

p. 515

[quoted from (Princess) Oyewumi 1997:xvi] "the S,o,`u’n {cf. /SOVereigN/} (monarch) of O`gbo’mo`s,o,’ ..., a`a`fin S,o,`u’n (the palace) has been the place I call home. Daily,

p. 516

I have ... heard the ori’ki` (praise poetry) ... as we passed through the saare` -- the courtyard in which the departed monarchs are buried."


"Tiamiyu (2000:122) denies Oyewumi’s assertion that her ... model of Yoru`ba’ culture applies to all Yoru`ba’ subgroups, such as the E`ki`ti` and the O`n`do’, with ... no evidence of participation in o`ri`s,a` worship". {Royalty everywhere tend to be deficient in religious piety.}

Oyewumi 1997 = Oyeronke, Oyewumi : The Invention of Women. Minneapolis : U of MN Pr.

Tiamiyu 2000 = Mojis,o,la F. Tiamiyu : "Review ... ". INTERNAT J OF AFRICAN STUDIES 2, no. 1:121-4.

p. 521 women’s attire

"i`ro’ (wrap skirts),

bu`ba’ (blouses),

o,`ja’ (baby-carrying slings)".

pp. 521-2 females’ burden-carrying

p. 521

"In the O,`yo,’ North towns ..., the most important ritual duty of a bride on her wedding night is to carry a pot of water on her head ... . ...

p. 522

In I`gbo`ho, even the a`ku’da`a’ya` tales of the dead describe the spirits of dead women walking away with head-borne pots".

p. 522 sexual discussions among religious personnel

"sexual intercourse – gi’gu`n – is one ... of the ... metaphors illuminating spirit possession in the Yemo,ja and S,a`ngo’ priesthoods".

"in my ... participant observation among the priests of Yemo,ja and S,a`ngo’, I was party to numerous ... conversations about sex, and I witnesses many a ribald dance by the S,a`ngo’ possession priests. Indeed, at one leisurely gathering ... an elderly possession priestess of S,a`ngo’ grabbed at my crotch and jokingly proposed marriage. The ... S,a`ngo’ priests present laughed happily and congratulated me on my good fortune."

p. 529 pseudo-homosexual behaviour during spirit-possession

"a highly respected Yoru`ba’ art historian from O,`yo,’ ... told ... that , one ... occasions ..., he witnessed possessed male S,a`ngo’ priests anally penetrating unpossessed male priests in an O,`yo,’ shrine." {Were the "possessed male S,a`ngo’ priests" possessed by a goddess at the time? If so, then the behaviour (being the activity of a goddess) could not be regarded as "homosexual".}

pp. 530-1 non-possessed priests

p. 530

"In O,`yo,’ North, the priesthoods of O`gu’n and Ifa’, unlike the predominantly female priesthoods {if so, "priestesshoods"} of the other o`ri`s,a`, are almost

p. 531

exclusively male ... and are not "mounted" (or possessed) by the god (Matory 1994:1-25, 133-35, 229-30 ...)."

pp. 539, 543 gendred vocabulary

p. 539

ako, ‘male’

abo ‘female’


o,ku`nrin ‘man’

obi`nrin ‘woman’

p. 543

o,ko, ‘husband’

aya ‘wife’


Jacob K. Olupona & Terry Rey (edd.) : O`ri`s,a` Devotion as World Religion. U of WI Pr, Madison, 2008.