"Mythology ... in the ... State of C^u"

{some of this is about mythology of states in the Yan-tze River valley, other than C^>u.}

p. 84, fn. 135 derivation of the state of C^u from the earlier state of Xia

[quoted from Hawkes 1983:9, n. 4] "Chu aristocracy believed that they and the Xia kings had a common ancestor in Gaoyang."

{In Yunnan was "a Bronze Age civilization dating back to 1200 BC at the south end of Lake Dianchi. This kingdom was known as Dian. Their historical roots are linked to the first ruling family in China’s history, the Xia Dynasty" ("YH").}

[quoted from Hawkes 1983:21] "the southern colonies of the Xia culture in Chu and Yue has often been remarked on".

Hawkes 1983 = David Hawkes : "The Heirs of Gao-yang". T>OUNG PAO 69:1-21.

"YH" = "Yunnan History" http://www.seeyunnan.net/view.asp?id=64

p. 58, fn. 36 derivation of the Han dynasty from the state of C^u

[quoted from Rawson 1998:37] "Chu state was the home of Liu Bang, who founded the fortunes of the Han to become Emperor ... and introduced at ... customs and beliefs, from Chu".

[quoted from Hartman 1986a:63] "The Han founders were natives of Chu, and ... influence ... the noticeable shamanistic element in Han ritual".

Rawson 1998 = Jessica Rawson : "Commanding the Spirits". ORIENTATIONS 29:2:33-45.

Hartman 1986a = Charles Hartman : "Poe:try". In :- William H. Nienhauser, Jr. (ed.) : The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature. IN U Pr. pp. 59-74.

pp. 60-2 C^u-ci (‘C^u Songs’) as shamanistic literature


Songs of C^u

60, fn. 41

[quoted from Hawkes 1993:51] "All the earlier Chuci poems (i.e., those traditionally attributed to QU YUAN or his disciple Song Yu) are ... connected with the beliefs and practices of shamanism. Some (Jiuge, Zhaohun, Dazhao) are explicitly concerned with these practices".


[quoted from Hawkes 1967:82] "Apart from the explicitly shamanistic poems (Jiuge, the ‘Summons’ poems, and the unclassifiable Tianwen) the content of the Chuci is classifiable under ...


itineraria, ... often the imaginary, supernatural journeys".


[quoted from Hartman 1986:348] "Much of the vocabulary and imagery of the Chuci texts derives from shaman rituals, and there is much evidence to suggest that QU YUAN ... was a shaman in the service of the king of Chu."

Hawkes 1993 = David Hawkes : "Ch>u-tz>u". In :- Michael Loewe (ed.) : Early Chinese Texts. U of CA Pr. pp. 48-55.

Hawkes 1967 = David Hawkes : "The Quest of the Goddess". ASIA MAJOR 13:71-94.

Hartman 1986 = "Ch>u-tz>u". In :- William H. Nienhauser, Jr. (ed.) : The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature. IN U Pr. pp. 347-9.

pp. 63-5 wu (‘shamans’) in the S^an-hai Jin (‘Mountains-[&-]Seas Classic’)


Classic of Mountains & Seas


"According to several scholars the Shanhaijing ... was composed in Chu." {More likely, because of its describing (infra p. 82, fn. 129) Fu-san (which was of particular interest to the state of Qin), the S^an-hai Jin could be ascribed to composition in Qin.}


[7:3b, B 116] "The Country of Shaman Whole (Wu Xian ...) lies north of the country of Girl Deuce."


in his __ hand

he holdeth __



a green snake



a scarlet snake


"The land of shaman Whole is the place from which crowds of shamans make their ascension and descend from the mountain." "Wu Xian, according to other sources, lives in the north, invented (... used for the first time) yarrow stalk divination, and was sent by emperor Taimou to invoke the spirits of mountains and rivers."


[15:2a, B 167] Shaman mountain : "To its west are the yellow bird and the great god’s drugs".


[11:6a] "East of the Openbright there are

Shaman Robust [Pen],

Shaman Pushaway [Di],

Shaman Sunny [Yan],

Shaman Shoe [Li],

Shaman Every [Fan], and

Shaman Aide [Xian].

They are all on each side of the corpse of Notch Flaw and they hold the neverdie drug to ward off decay."


[16:3a] "In the middle of the Great Wilderness there is ... Mount Divinepower (Ling ...). This is where

Shaman Whole [Xian],

Shaman Reach {"Reached after by father Reach" (HM, p. 264)} [Yi],

Shaman Share [Fen],

Shaman Robust [Pen],

Shaman Motherinlaw {The name "Mother-in-law" would indicate that all these "shamans" as actually shamanesses (as /wu/, infra p. 71} [Gu],

Shaman Real [Z^en],

Shaman Rite [Li],

Shaman Pushaway [Di],

Shaman Takeleave [Xie] and

Shaman Birdnet [Luo]

ascend to the sky and come down from Mount Divinepower. This is where the hundred drugs are found."

B = Anne Birrell : The Classic of Mountains and Seas. London : Penguin Bks, 1999.

HW = Martha Beckwith : Hawaiian Mythology. Yale u Pr, 1940.

pp. 65-6 the Huai-nan-zi & the Z^uan- zi

p. 65

"the Huainanzi compiled by ... magicians (fangshi) ... in Huainan, a small kingdom within the boundaries of Chu". {Actually, Huai-nan was within the state of Wu, not the state of C^u.}

p. 66, fn. 74

[quoted from Mair 1998:xxxi] "Zhuang Zhou was from Meng, a district in the northern state of Song."

p. 66

Of the Z^uan-zi, there was "radical recension by GUO XIANG who "reduced the text by ... removing passages ..." (ROTH 1993:58)."

Mair 1998 = Victor H. Mair : Wandering on the Way. U of HI Pr.

Roth 1993 = Harold D. Roth : "Chuang tzu". In :- Michael Loewe (ed.) : Early Chinese Texts. Berkeley : U of CA Pr. pp. 56-66.

pp. 71-2 declaration by Guan S^e-fu to king Z^ao of C^u (according to the Guo-yu ‘Discourses of the States’)

p. 71

[Guo-yu, C^u-yu 18:1a-3a, Birrell 1993:94-5] "Therefore the shining gods descended to the people,

to the males known as xi-shamans and

to the females known as wu-shamans. ...

When it came to ... Shao Hao, the Nine Li disrupted .. , and gods and humans intermingled and became indistinguishable, and it became impossible to determine who were mortal creatures. ...

Zhuan Xu succeeded [S^ao Hao], and then"


he ordered __


to control __

in order to assemble __



__ of the South


the gods



Fire __


the people

p. 72

"This was termed to "sever the links between earth and Heaven."

Later the San Miao repeated the disruption of the cosmic powers as the Nine Li had done."

Birrell 1993 = Anne Birrell : Chinese Mythology.

pp. 70, 72 Z^uan Xu as ancestor of the royal dynasty of C^u, and as identified with Z^u Ron (according to Si-ma Qian)

p. 70

[quoted from Cook-Major 1999:211] "Zhuan Xu Gaoyang. Gaoyang was grandson of Huang Di, and the son of Chang Yi.

Gaoyang begat Cheng.

Cheng begat Juan Zhang.

Juan Zhang begat Zhong Li. Zhong Li occupied the office of Governor of Fire for Di Ku Gao Xin ... . He was able to ... warm [rong] the world. Di Ku named him Zhu Rong."

p. 70, fn. 93

"The 16th chapter of the Shanhaijing also mentions Zhuanxu, as the father of Laotong and the grandfather of Zhong and Li. Lao Tong (Old Lad) {cf. Sanat Kumara (‘Old Boy’, who though very old appeared to be a young boy, according to the Puran.a-s)} appears in two lists of Chu genealogies, and it cannot be excluded that his figure has contributed to the concept of the cosmic, deified Laozi". {Lao-zi, who was according to legend born in the form of an antient, wizened baby, would more closely resemble Naraka (who was likewise born in the form of an antient, wizened baby, according to the Puran.a-s)}.

p. 72

[quoted from Eberhard 1968:443-4] "In the Guoyu (Zhengyu), Zhongli is made ancestor of Jing (usually equal to Chu), and his is equated with Zhu Rong, the fire-god ... (see also commentary to Hou Hanshu 89.8b). Zhongli is buried in Hengshan in Hubei. At the time of king Ling of Chu his grave was broken open, and magic maps were found in it".

Cook-Major 1999 = Constance A. Cook & John S. Major : Defining Chu. HI U Pr.

Eberhard 1968 = Wolfram Eberhard (transl. by A. Eberhard) : The Local Cultures of South and East China. Leiden : Brill.

pp. 74-5 Xi-wan-mu (‘West-Queen-Mother’), according to the S^an-hai Jin (‘Mountains-[&-]Seas Classic’) 12:1a


Classic of Mountains & Seas


"As for the mountain of the serpent shamans, on top of it is a person brandishing a cup as she stands facing east. One source calls it the Tortoise Mountain. The Queen Mother


of the West leans on a stool; moreover, she wears a sheng and carries a staff. To the south are three birds who take food for the Queen Mother of the West, north of the Kunlun barrens."

pp. 77-8 Fu-xi & Nu:-gua

p. 77

[Fracasso 1988:16] "Fuxi ... is reputed for being the inventor of the nets for hunting and fishing, ... inventor of ... the Eight Trigrams divination. His courtesy name was Tai Hao, who was, according to the Shanhaijing, the founder of the Ba people" in Sze-c^>uan.


[quoted from Birrell 1993:46] "Fu Xi ... ordered the creation of the zither instrument. ... It is said that Fu Xi made the zither and composed the ‘Jiabian’ tune."

p. 78, fn. 109

"According to the Huainanzi, Nu: Gua made "seventy transformations" (BIRRELL 1993:164)." {[Hawai>ian] goddess Haumea repeatedly "changes her form" (HM, p. 278). Goddess Maya (who according to Atharvan Veda 7:8:22 – GAI, p. 121) is a guise of Viraj, who, when repeatedly killed, repeatedly re-appeared in diverse guises (PE&ITh, p. 148; these are named in AV 8:10).}

p. 78, fn. 110

[quoted from Cook 1994:5] "Fuxi ... takes as wife ... Nu: Huang (= Nu: Gua), who then gives birth to the four spirits of the seasons ... . These are the same four spirits that Yan Di commanded Zhu Rong to bring down."

p. 78, fn. 112

[Huai-nan-zi 6:7b, Birrell 1993:71] "In remote antiquity, the four pole collapsed. ... Fierce beasts devoured the people of Zhuan. ... Then Nu: Gua smelted five-color stones to mend the blue sky. She severed the feet of a giant sea turtle to support the four poles {cf. [Zun~i] "A water strider, an insect that skates on the surface tension of water, places its feet at the edges of the world." ("ZIL") -- "A water-strider, an insect that skates on the surface of water, came along and stretched out its legs to the edges of the earth." (WRA, p. 13a) – The water-strider’s outspread legs form an "X"-shape (CEAS, s.v. "Water Skate"), whence the cross-in-a-circle motif.} and killed a black dragon to save the region of Ji. ... the people of Zhuan ... bore earth’s square area on their back and embraced the round sky".

Fracasso 1988 = Riccardo Fracasso : "Holy Mothers of Ancient China". T>OUNG PAO 74:1-46.

Prithvi Kumar Agrawala : Goddesses in Ancient India. New Delhi : Abhinav Publ, 1984. http://books.google.com/books?id=6FHvf59ceLEC&pg=RA2-PA121&lpg=RA2-PA121&dq=%22viraj+ascended%22&source=bl&ots=mEhNTautay&sig=wmVy5rPGcJzM4MP_5hs6HH2VB-M&hl=en&ei=sdchTZLjHIH88Abh1fGeDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%22viraj%20ascended%22&f=false

PE&ITh = Arthur L. Herman : The Problem of Evil and Indian Thought. Delhi, 2nd edn. 1993. http://books.google.com/books?id=uGdFsGl7U1oC&pg=PA148&lpg=PA148&dq=%22viraj+ascended%22&source=bl&ots=Xi4ruw0_7z&sig=9_7J60fsBZ1ZaNa7UFVYkiZ7_EU&hl=en&ei=2NwhTZjJN4Ss8Aa-g-XWDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CC0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=%22viraj%20ascended%22&f=false

AV 8:10 = Atharvan Veda, lib. 8, hymn 10 http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/av/av08010.htm

Cook 1994 = Constance A. Cook : "Three High Gods of Chu." J OF CHINESE RELIGIONS 22:1-22.

WRA = Jacob Neusner : World Religions in America. http://books.google.com/books?id=34vGv_HDGG8C&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=Zuni+%22Water-Strider%22&source=bl&ots=AWLOasNQMF&sig=Fxh-Hi7wqaX7xQmItfIudAw3udg&hl=en&ei=JFAjTYqTKIO78gat3qH-DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Zuni%20%22Water-Strider%22&f=false

CEAS = Hope B. Werness : The Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in Art. http://books.google.com/books?id=iBSDddO-9PoC&pg=PA428&lpg=PA428&dq=Zuni+%22Water-Strider%22&source=bl&ots=wGKvciFnJr&sig=sMt1NJZ6sPmScttP9UCG8qLZY78&hl=en&ei=4lMjTcezFIOB8gaJ8enADg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Zuni%20%22Water-Strider%22&f=false

p. 79 Kui

The S^uo-wen "defines Kui as a kind of "divine spirit that looks like a dragon with a single foot" (CHANG 1983:57)."

[Eberhard 1942:329] "It is supposed to live in the southern mountains of Shu (modern Sichuan)".

[S^an-hai Jin 14:6b] "It looks like a bull, black, hornless, with a single foot. When it enters into and emerges from the water there will be a windstorm. It shines ... and its voice sounds like thunder ... . The Yellow Emperor ... used its skin to make a drum and beat the drum with the bone of a thunder beast."

Chang 1983 = Kwang-chih Chang : Art, Myth, and Ritual. Harvard U Pr.

Eberhard 1942 = Wolfram Eberhard : Localkulturen im alten China.

p. 82, fn. 129 the Kon-san (‘Hollow Mulberry’) tree, according to the S^an-hai Jin (‘Mountains-[&-]Seas Classic’)

[9:3a-b, Allan 1991:28] "Above the Tang Valley is the Fu Sang. ... It is north of the Black Tooth Tribe. In the swirling waters is a great tree. Nine suns dwell on its lower branches; one sun is on its uppermost branch".

[14:5a-b, Allan 1991:28] "On the top of a mountain named Nieyaojundi is the Fu Tree. Although its trunk is three hundred li, its leaves are like those of a mustard. The valley there is called the Warn Springs Valley. ... When one sun reaches it, another sun goes out, all of them are carried by birds".

[15:7b, Allan 1991:33] "Beyond the South-eastern Sea amidst the Sweet waters is the Tribe Xihe. There is a woman named Xihe who regularly bathes the suns in the Sweet Springs. Xihe is the wife of Dijun. It is she who gave birth to the ten suns".

Allan 1991 = Sarah Allan : The Shape of the Turtle. SUNY Pr.

p. 83 the slaying by Yi of various monsters

[Huai-nan-zi 8:5b-6a (Birrell 1993:141)] "When it came to the era of Yao,

the ten suns rose all at once, scorching the sheaves of grain ... . And

{cf. women of Boiotia "parch the seed-corn" (GM 70.c)}

the Zhayu Dragon-Headed beast,

{cf. Gorg-opis ‘Grim-Face’ (GM 70.7)}

the Giant-Gale bird,

{cf. "a halcyon fluttered above" (GM 149.h)}

the Fengxi wild boar, and

{cf. Heraklees was made captain "after capturing the Erymanthian Boar" (GM 149.a}

the Giant-Head long-snake all plagued the people.

{cf. "guarded by a dragon" (GM 70.m)}

So Yao ordered Yi

[Pelias ordered (GM 148.f-g) Iason :-]

to execute the Chisel-Tusk beast in the wilds of Chou Hua,

{cf. women of Lemnos practised "tattooing" (GM 149.1), a process involving chiseling in the skin}

to slaughter the Nine-Gullet beast near Xiong River,

{cf. Euneus "nine days" (GM 149.e) at Lemnos}

to shoot down with his corded arrows the Giant-Gale at Qingqiu Marsh.

{cf. "north-easterly wind" (GM 149.g} of king Kuzikos of Arkton}

He ordered him to shoot the ten suns up above".

{cf. the "winged, female" flying Harpuiai (GM 150.j)}

p. 84, fn. 133 The "corded arrows" (wherewith the Giant-Gale was shot) were "plain-colored arrows with silk cords" (S^an-hai Jin 18:7b, Birrell 1993:78). [These were harpoon-arrows, with a cord attached so that the carcass of Giant-Gale could be pulled out from the marsh.] {The cave Dikte (‘Net’) whereinto the Harpuiai retired is similar to the name of the Doliones (‘Snares’), the 6-handed Earth-born ones (GM 149.f); while the "wolf-skin cloak" (GM 163.g) of Dolon would be from the wolves of Alos (GM 70.i) who were the wolf-suitors (GM 70.l) of Theo-phane.}

p. 83, fn. 131 superfluous suns

"the ‘myth of the superfluous suns’, ... documented for the native peoples of Taiwan, for the Lolo and Miao minorities in southern China, and among various groups in South-east Asia and Indonesia" (HENDRICKS 1996:273)."

"the name of Yi (Yi Yi) implies that this figure was originated among the eastern (Yi) tribes (HAWKES 1983:8-9)."

{This name ‘Eastern’ could simply be derived from Yi’s ambuscade of the superfluous suns at their site of rising in the mythic east at dawn. With the 10 suns of Yi, cf. the 10 spiro^t of >adam Qadmoni^ (‘Red Easterner’) in the Qabbalah : calendrically, these are the 10 days of the Hellenic week (the 10 days in each decan).}

Hendricks 1996 = Robert S. Hendricks : "The Three-Bodied Shun and the Completion of Creation" BULLETIN OF THE SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES 59:268-95.

p. 85, fn. 140 Gun

[S^an-hai Jin 18:8b-9a, Birrell 1997:244] "Floodwater swelled up to the sky. Gun stole God’s breathing-soil so as to stop up the flooding waters. {Apparently the earth-goddess was drowning, and the breathing-soil rescued her by enabling her to breathe; so that the "breathing-soil" may have been an anti-histamine, which can block the action of those drugs (much-used in "psychiatry") which cause asphyxiation.} But he did not wait for God’s official permission. {"God" (Di), who is apparently as psychiatrist of the murderous "concentration-camp" (cyanide-praescribing, etc.) variety, would of course never have granted any such permission.} God ordered Zhu Yong to kill Gun on the approaches to Feather Mountain. Then he commanded Yu in the end to spread out the (breathing-)soil ... in the Nine Provinces". {The intention of such spreading-out was to scatter it so thoroughly that it would be lost beyond the possibility of its being used for any potential future medical remedying.}

Birrell 1997 = Anne Birrell : "Studies on Chinese Myths since 1970". HISTORY OF RELIGIONS 33:2:380-93.

p. 87 Hun-dun

p. 87, fn. 144

[Z^uan-zi 3:19a-b, Birrell 1993:100]

"The god of the south sea was Shu [Brief],

the god of the north sea was Hu [Sudden],

and the god of the center was Hun Dun [Confused]. ...

Shu and Hun ... said : ‘All humans have seven openings with which to see, ear, eat, and breathe. Only this one has not got any.’ So they tried chiseling him. Each day they chiseled one opening. On the seventh day, Hun Dun died". {cf. Zuni origin-myth : "The people have no mouth openings. ... The warrior twins slit mouth openings in the people's faces" ("ZIL").}


[S^an-hai Jin 2:22b-23a, Birrell 1993:100] "Sky Mountain. There is a lot of gold and jade ... . Ying River springs from there and then flows southwest to empty into Tang Valley. There is a god [s^en] there. His appearance is like a yellow bag, and he is red like a cinnabar flame. {yellow with red highlighting} He has six feet and four wings. {like unto most insects} Hun Dun has no face or eyes. This one knows how to sing and dance. He is, in fact, Di Jiang [God River]".

p. 87, fn. 145

"In Chronicle of Zuo, Hun Dun is labeled as the First of the Four Ominous Ones, along with

Qiong Qi (Gargoyle),

Tao Wu (the Block), and

Tao Tie (Glutton) (KARLGREN 1946:247).


In the Classic of History, Hun Dun is one of the ‘Four Evil Ones’ exiled by Shun ... (GIRARDOT 1983:123)".

"ZIL" = http://nativeamerican-art.com/Zuni-legend.html "Cooked People Legend"

Karlgren 1946 = Bernhard Karlgren : "Legends and Cults of Ancient China". BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FAR EASTERN ANTIQUITIES 18:199-365.

Girardot 1983 = Norman J. Girardot : Myth and Meaning in Early Taoism. U of CA Pr.

Ga`bor Ko`sa : "Mythology and Shamanism in the Antient Chinese State of C^u". In :- BIBLIOTHECA SHAMANISTICA, Vol. 11 = Miha`ly Hoppa`l & Ga`bor Ko`sa (edd.) : Rediscovery of Shamanic Heritage. Akade`miai Kiado`, Budapest, 2003. Part I, contribution 3 (pp. 45-108).