Mythic Images & Shamanism, V

p. 204 the tieta:ja:’s luonto (‘spirit-helper’)

SKVR 1:4:17

South American

ariseth out of "the first thunderstorm in the spring,"

{this would be the lightning-storm of "type 2 false awakening" (LD, p. 121), in S^uar shamanism}

from "the roots of the tree felled by the storm".

{shamanic tree, as the crocodile-tree of the Mapuc^e}

LD = Celia Green : Lucid Dreams. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1968.




p. 205 (SKVR 1:4:52) "Ukko, ... I pour myself into the closed copper tube". {In UFOs, "the green color came from a high copper content." (SA, p. 62)}

{cf. water-guise of Proteus, before becoming (green-leafed) tree. [baobab tree ?]}

p. 207 "In Northern and Eastern Finland, the Ukko’s bolt, a rock beleived to be his weapon, was called the "claw" or "talon" of Ukko ... thunder as a giant bird".

{In the Veda, Soma is left on earth as talon of the thunderbird Garutman.}

SA = Jenny Randles : Something in the Air. Robert Hale Ltd., 1996.

p. 213 power to dominate fire, in the Birth of Fire





"Panu, ...

The grandson of the sun,

Born by Auringotar,

Make the fire impotent".

{BHANU, a sun-god}


"Cinder girl, maid of Pohjola,

Thrust her hand into the fire ..."

{[Italian] Cindarella}

p. 215 deities summoned for assistance by the tieta:ja:





"Ahti, ...

With a linden whip,

With a juniper rod".

{Trita APTya}



{[Norse] ViLi}

1;4:1851, 1852, 1861; 7:4:1552

"honeyed men summoned from the earth (mannunmiehet)"

{[Yucatec] cab ‘honey; earth’ (ChBCh13, fn.)}

1:4:495, 599a-b, 1863, 1868, 1869; 12:1:3579

"the "honeyed men" of Mehtola or of Metsa:la:"

in the golden age of Kronos, "honey dripped from boughs" (M 1:88)


Ututytto: (Maiden of the Mist)

{also in New Zealand (UMM) and in Kauai (HLV9, pp. 57-59)}

ChBCh13 =

M = Metamorphoses, by Ovidius


HLV9 =

p. 222 places of banishment for illness




"To the giant swine’s nostrils, ...

To the jaws of a giant wolf,

... into the jaws of the pike ..."


"To the red salmon’s tail,

Onto the great pike’s shoulders,

Onto the water-dog’s arched back."


"To the mighty rapids of Rutja,

To the shoulders of the great pike,

To the red salmon’s tail".

{cf. Irish divine salmon}

p. 225 banishment of illness-daimon by Evenk shaman

"He sends two spirit helpers in bird form

to drive the illness-demon out of the patient ...;

they are assisted in this by two weapon-shaped spirits ...

The shaman orders a spirit in the shape of an owl ...

to transport the demon to

the opening leading to the lower world ...

Finally, the shaman sends a two-headed pike

{cf. 2 shoulders of Finnish pike}

to wreak vengeance ...

To ensure ... in the future,

the shaman places his spirit helpers in animal form

around the lands ... as a security fence ...

and erects offerings to the supreme divinities ..."

pp. 226-227 how spirit-helpers in animal-form attack an illness






"My secret devourer bewitch ...

I sing a cap to his head,

And underneath the cap will be

A sheaf of worms from Vybourg,

A heap of horsehair snakes".

{cf. O`dinn’s epithet "horsehair".}



"Come, golden burbot-fish, ...

To bring good health".



"I will summon a ram with twisted horns

To the black river of Tuoni,

To the lower book of Manala, ...

I’ll cause its horns to strike. ...

I will summon an ox with outspread horns ..."



"It is the eagle, my own eagle,

Which has eyes on its wing-ends, ...

To eat the village’s curses."



"I take the claws of a toad

{clawed toads exist only in Africa}, ...

The talons from a hawk ...


The eagle came from Turja, ...

It had a flaming beak,

And eyes beneath its wings, ...

One wing sliced the water

{cf shearwater-bird},

The other divided the heavens,

A hundred men were on its wing,

A thousand on its tail tip,

Dozens on every feather."



"I’ll saddle a hundred snakes,

yoke a dozen vipers

to run ahead before me , ...

I’ll build a bear of iron".

ship is bewitched by bird-woman

p. 236 Finnish


"The old crone of the North, gap-toothed

Rose on skylark’s pinions

On a bunting’s wings flew high,

Made a tail from a bathing whisk

[Valkyrja, "a female witch astride a broomstick" – p. 237],

Made a dress from a man’s long shirt

{[Channel Island] Sark ‘shirt’}.

Glided to the prow of a wooden boat.

The craft’s bow began to sink".

{Harpuai "at the Strophades islands" (GM 150.j) : "The Strophades (‘turning’) islands were so called because ships could expect the wind to turn as they approached." (GM 150.3)}

GM = Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955.

the Vermland Finnish bird-goddess Loho / Luukka

p. 238 Finnish


"Loho or Luukka, flying in the shape of a raven ..."

{Daughter of Koronis the Lapith, Koronis "was changed into a crow" (CDCM).}

"In order to scare away Loho ..., the feather of a grouse was kept on the "luck-board"." [grouse = Ukko ?] "Loho ... brought wolves in her wake."

{[In the mythology of the Yana (YT, pp. 211-212) and of the Atsugewi (A&AT, pp. 171-172), both of California], the grouses troubled the Coyote-god.}

CDCM = Pierre Grimal (tr. by Maxwell-Hyslop) : A Concise Dictionary of Classical mythology. 1990.

YT = Edward Sapir : Yana Texts. 1910.

A&AT = Roland B. Dixon : Achomawi and Atsugwei Tales. 1908.

p. 239 Sami deity Rota / Rutu

"The being astride a horse is Rota ...

Rota or Rutu was an illness-causing spirit and

the ruler of Rota-aimo (Rut-aimo) ... Rota’s realm, Rota-aimo,

was a land of the dead similar to Hell

{cf. Hellish realm of RUDra},

to which evil persons were sent

from Jabme-aimo, a sort of liminal realm of the dead.

Those who had lived a good life, on the other hand,

entered Radien-aimo, ... the home of the ruler

who lived in the heavens."

p. 241 "Rota’s horse is reminiscent of the Hiisi-horse of the Finnish tieta:ja:."

SKVR = Suomen Kansan Vanhat Runot I-XIV (‘The antient poe:ms of the Finnish people’). Helsinki, 1908-1948.

FOLKLORE FELLOWS COMMUNICATIONS, Vol CXXX, No. 280 = Anna-Leena Siikala : Mythic Images and Shamanism. Helsinki : Academia Scientarum Fennica, 2002. pp. 195-241.