Mesopotamian Protective Spirits

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Text I – pp. 1-40

p. 6 & 7 evil supernaturals

l.

supernatural

1

UDUG HUL ‘evil spirit’

 

A.LA’ HUL ‘evil alu^’

 

GIDIM HUL ‘evil ghost’

2

GAL5.LA’ HUL ‘evil constable’

 

DINGIR HUL ‘evil god’

 

MAS^KIM HUL ‘evil deputy

3

Lamas^tu

 

Labas.u

 

ah^-h^a-zu ‘robber’

4

LI’L.LA’ (Lilu^)

 

MUNUS. LI’L.LA’ (Lili^tu)

 

KI.SIKIL.UD.DA.KAR.RA (handmaid-of-Lilu^)

5

S^U.DINGIR.RA (‘Hand of god’)

 

S^U.dINANNA (‘Hand of goddess’)

 

AN.TA.S^UB.BA (‘Heaven-from fallen’)

6

dLUGAL.U`R.RA

 

dLUGAL.AMAS^.PA.E`

7

dNAM.TAR (‘Fate’)

 

SAG.HUL.HA.ZA (‘Supporter of evil’)

 

mu-tu (‘Death’)

8

kib-bu (‘Burning’)

 

h^i-in-t.u (‘Scorching’)

 

ka`-til-lu

pp. 8 & 9, ll. 49-65 protective deities : the colors of their uniforms, and their names

#

color

name

1st

red

day of life, offspring of UNUG (Uruk)

2nd

white

day of plenty, son of EN.LI’L (as god of Nippur)

3rd

white with black

day of splendor, who grew up in Eri-du`g

4th

black

good day, who appeared in Kul-lab

5th

yellow

fair-faced day, brought up in Ki-si (Kes^)

6th

blue

righteous day, exalted judge of La-gas^

7th

orange

day that gives life to the slain, shade of S^u-rup-pa-ak

pp. 16-19 sequence of deities

p.

l.

deity

16

211

dE’.A

   

dUTU

   

dASAL.LU.HI (Marduk)

 

240

dA-nim

   

dBE

   

dE’.A

   

MAS^ (Ninurta)

18

269

dLUGAL.GI`R.RA

 

290

dMES.LAM.TA.E`.A

 

292

dMAS^.TAB.BA

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Text II – pp. 41-104

pp. 54-55 Sumerian color-terms

p.

meaning

Sumerian

54

red

SA5

 

white

BABBAR

 

black

GI6

 

dark

SIG7.SIG7

55

orange

KAL.GUG

pp. 60-62 Akkadian weapon-terms

p.

meaning

Akkadian

60

hatchet

qulmu^

 

cornel (cudgel)

e>ru

 

mace

kakku

 

dagger

patru

 

axe

has.innu

61

stone-headed mace

h^utpalu^

 

battle-axe

zah^at.u^

 

curved staff

gamlum

62

disk

niph^u

 

crescent

uskaru

pp. 86-87 Akkadian terms for implements held by deities

p.

implement

held by deity __

86

marru ‘spade’

lah^mu

 

pas^tu ‘crescent-axe’

"held by the bas^mu in its mouth"

 

uskaru ‘crescent’

uridimmu

 

bandudu^ ‘bucket’

kusarikku [or else urmah^lullu^ (p. 87)]

87

e>ru ‘cornel’

suh^urmas^u

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Text III – pp. 105-118

B pp. 110-112 list of deities

p.

l.

deity

110

13c

harpress-goddess dNa-ru-di

 

13e

dMES.LAM.TA.E`.A

 

13f

dU.GUR

 

13g

dI-s^um "the great herald"

111

13k

Lulal

   

Latarak

 

13l

Ea

   

Marduk

 

13m

"bull-eared god" Ensimah

 

13n

goddess "Is^tar in the window"

 

13o

"Gula the great chief physician"

 

14x

"Urgula sits with his dogs"

112

17x

n u – s i g a "the good lamp" (Nuska)

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Text V – pp. 131-140

p. 135 woods of statues of animal-deities

ii`

deity

wood

7`

?

tamarisk

 

Lion

pine

8`

Mad-Lion

cedar

 

Viper

juniper

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VII. "Inventory of monsters"

.C.

p.

pure Sumerian

Sumerian form of Akkadian word

Akkadian

meaning in Akkadian

identity

.1.

164-5

 

l a h a m a

lah^mu

‘hairy’

naked hero

.2.

166-7

 

u s^ u m

bas^mu

‘venomous snake’

horned snake with forelegs

.3.

168

u4 (lion-headed dragon)

m u s^ - h u s^

mus^hus^s^u

‘furious snake’

snake-dragon

.4.

169-70

u4 – g a l ‘day big’

 

umu rabu^

‘weather big’

lion-headed man

.4.b

170

   

Petu^

 

lion-head, human hands, bird-claws

.5.

172-3

u r – i d i m ‘hound wild’

   

‘mad lion’

human-headed lion

.6.

174-5

a l i m

 

kusarikku

‘bison’

bison-man

.7.

180

g i’ r –t a b ‘scorpion’

     

scorpion-man

.8.

181

u r – m a h ‘lion’

     

lion-centaur

.9.

182-3

KU6.LU’.U`LU

     

fish-centaur, human-headed fish

.9.c

182

Ku-li-li / Ki-li-li

 

kuliltu

 

fish-woman

.10.

184

s u h u r – m a s^ / m a’ s^

   

‘carp-goat’

 

.11.

187

A n z u d

     

lion-headed eagle

various divine, or divinely-associated, animals

.C.

p.

animal

.3.d

168

"the mus^h^s^s^u originally serves the underworld god Ninazu, the king of the snakes ... . ... Eshnunna ... takes ...

"

169

Tishpak’s victory over the ... monster of his predecessor".

.4.c

171

Old Akkadian "lion-demon is adversary of the Sun god ..., or an associate of Adad"

.5.a

172-3

"u r – i d i m ... denoted ... in Akkadian ... zibu, ‘jackal’ "

--

176, n. 10

"human-faced bisons ... dedicated to Utu"

.7.d

180

"girtablullu^ ... is accompanied by his wife ... . Together they guard the gate of mount Mas^u ("Twin") and watch over the rising and setting of the sun."

.9.c

182

kulilu ‘dragonfly’ {with this Akkadian phonetic similarity of ‘carp’ with ‘dragonfly’, cf. the Chinese belief that carp transform themselves into dragons}

.10.d

184

"Carp-Goat" : "Piriggalabzu, the sage of Adab, hangs his seal on it, ... and gets killed (by a fuller) with the (same?) seal in consequence."

.11.a

185

"The lion-dragon is Adad’s mount ... u4 ..., "weather-beast"".

"

"

u4 – k a – d u h – h a / umu na>iru "weather-beast-with-opened mouth / roaring weather-beast"

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CUNEIFORM MONOGRAPHS, I = F. A. M. Wiggermann : Mesopotamian Protective Spirits. Styx & PP Publications, Groningen, 1992.