Maya Sacred Geography

p. 25 [C^>orti>] "female feathered serpent" : "when this feathered serpent flies across the sky one September 15, her shadow causes particular animals to metamorphose into other animals" :

original form of animal

metamorphosed form of animal

deer, agoutis, peccaries, rabbits, foxes

various species of snakes

turtles

parrots

bats

mice

armadilos

vultures

and, conversely,

original form

metamorphosed form

species of snakes

deer, agoutis, peccaries, rabbits, foxes

parrots

turtles {macaws fall into water, become turtles (in Talamanca lore)}

hearthstone deities

p. 65 Aztec

{Sa>dan Toraja in Sulawesi (PB, p. 52)}

"in the Aztec Annals of Cuauhtitla`n, ... the old fire god Xiutecuhtli is guarded by three deities (Mixcoatl, Tozpan, and Ihuitl), who are said to be the three hearthstones."

{"trinity, comparable with the three stones of the fireplace. ... to these gods were given the following names : Pong Tulak Padang, the god who dwells under the earth ["in ‘the clefts of the earth’ " (loc. cit.)], Pong Gaun Tikembong, the god in the centre of the firmament, and Pong Bongga Rante, who remains on earth."}

PB = Kees Buijs : Powers of Blessing from the Wilderness and from Heaven. KITLV Pr, Leiden, 2006.

p. 124 mythic events recorded on the Tablet of the Cross

event

date

involving the 3 hearthstones

13.0.0.0.0

the 6 Sky house event

2 years later

birth of god GI

on day 9 Wind, 754 years after 13.0.0.0.0

accession of Muwaan Mat

on day 9 Wind, 789 years after 13.0.0.0.0

{so, birth of god GI occurred 752 years after the 6 Sky house event : cf. foundation of ROMa in 752 B.Chr.E. (according to the Fasti Capitolini Consulares et Triumphales -- CY) }

CY = http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/calendar/consuls.html

pp. 93-95 divination by diviners

p.

diviners

93

[K>ic^e>] "Through "lightning in the blood," he receives messages as he counts, ... according to the day name on which they occur. The day’s "face" ... establishes the fortune of the event. ... A divination method that is related to the lightning in the blood is called pulsing ... the ritual specialist feeling ... pulse ... of his client."

 

[Tzotzil] "Thirteen kernels from each of the four colors of corn are placed in a "soul-calling" gourd that holds salt water ... . The ritual specialist counts the positions of the kernels and interprets what this means in terms of the patient’s soul."

[Atiteco ritual cloth] The ah-kun (‘day-keeper’) "can place the cloth on the belly of the female client, face downward. Whatever looks at the navel will give the child its ‘face.’ The cloth will give the child the propitious ‘face’ ".

94

"the modern K>iche> of Momostenango, who have four sacred lakes, one for each direction ... believe that the "clear light" of divinatory knowledge is transferred from the four lakes". "Dreaming of a lake is one indication that the ritual specialist is ready to receive divination knowledge; the lake is described as a mirror ... . ... In an Ixil dream, the dreamer thought he was walking on the waters of Lake Atitla`n when a snake entered his left foot, traveled up his body, through his head, down his right side and out his right foot ... . {God K / GII having serpent as (= emerging from?) right leg (p. 114, Fig. 6.4.a)} This was a clear sign he must become a diviner. "Snake illness," characterized as sudden body cramps, is one of the main illnesses that afflict people destined to be diviners."

 

"Sheet lightning is the bright flash of light seen ... when the lightning bolt occurs inside ... a cloud. It can also be observed as a reflection on the surface of water. Sheet lightning is usually called heat lightning when it occurs so far away that no thunder is ... associated

95

with it. [Sheet lighting] is called coyopa in a number of highland Maya languages ... . K>iche> diviners believe that they have a kind of soul in their blood in the form of sheet lighting. When a diviner experiences tingling or twitching in his muscles, it is thought to be the movement of the lighting in his blood, and these movements provide him with the answer to whatever question he has posited ... . ... the regents of a particular day are ultimately thought to convey these answers. ... [For] diviners ... to dream of a lake indicates that the lightning is their blood is ready to move and give them answers to their divination questions ... . ... "A lake is like a mirror, not moving until one’s day comes, and then it begins to move with the lightning." ... This lightning in the blood ... is equated with the sheet lightning that occurs over the sacred lakes ... . The diviners describe the sensation of the lightning in the blood to be "as if air were rapidly moving through their flesh in a flickering or undulating manner, similar to the pattern of exterior sheet lightning as it moves at night over the lakes" ... . ...

The crystals used in the divination process ... are thought to draw the lightning from the four directions ... {cf. piezoelectricity} . During their divinations, K.iche> diviners study the refracted light in their crystals and refer to this light as lightning".

 

"In the Tzotzil area, heat lightning is thought to be sea-foam cast into the sky by the ocean ... . {cf. birth of caelestial goddess Aphrodite from sea-foam} The Tzeltal say that heat lightning is the older brother of the lightning bolt who fell into the sea".

{earlier version of same passage by Karen Bassie on coyopa ‘sheet lightning’ in http://www.mesoweb.com/features/bassie/CreatorGods/CreatorGods.pdf (p. 20)}

p. 96 [Yucatec] The high priest’s title "Ahau Can (a name for the rattlesnake) may refer to his role as a dispenser of dew."

"G" Series gods

the 3 gods of the "G" Series -- "also known as the Palenque Triad." (p. 107)

{the 3 sons of Kirke by Odusseus (CDCM, s.v. "Circe").}

god

featured in "Temple of the __"

 

GI with protrusion from nose (p. 110, Fig. 6.2.b)

Cross

{ROMos (cf. RuGam ‘mucus’; Ru<aM ‘glanders’ – DMWA)}

GII of serpent-leg (p. 114, Fig. 6.4)

Foliated Cross

{ANTIAs (cf. Amazon-queen ANTIAneira, who amputated husband’s leg -- A)}

GIII fire-drill (p. 117)

Sun

{ARDEas (cf. /ARDEo/ ‘I kindle’)}

p. 111 "GI is also associated with the Six Sky place." {according to Lu Hsiu-c^in (406-77 Chr.E.) the "Six Heavens" are the abodes of those noxious spectres who are "generals of defeated armies" (ChMM, p. 51)}

p. 113 GII "has a celt sign in his forehead and an ax protruding from his head." {cf. To`rr with stone (from Hrungnir) protruding from his forehead.}

CDCM = Pierre Grimal : Concise Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 1990.

DMWA = Han Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic.

A = http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/AMAZONS.html

ChMM = Michel Strickmann (ed. By Bernard Faure) : Chinese Magical Medicine. Stanford U Pr, 2002.

pp. 141-143 Wak bird & snake prey

p.

Wak & snake

141

[Popol Vuh] "On the road to the ballcourt, the slow-moving louse meets a young toad called Tamazul who volunteers to carry him. ... The toad then meets a great snake called Saqi K>as who volunteers to take him at a faster rate of speed. ... Then the snake encounters a bird called Wak ... . ... Wak promises to give the twins their message on the condition that they first restore his eyesight. They do so by rubbing his eye with black rubber ... . ... When Wak of the Popol Vuh arrives at the ballcourt, he calls out "wak-ko," the call of Herpetotheres cacchinnans, also known as the ... laughing falcon ... . ... The laughing falcon often eats venomous snakes". {" A snake collects toxin by biting a poisonous toad and uses that venom as a defense against hawks" : Asian snake Rhabdophis tigrinus; poisonous Bufo quercicus toads (SBTT).}

142

In Holoniel myth, "the laughing falcon heals the first woman to spin cotton, and Ix Chel, wife of [Itzamnaah], was the first woman to spin cotton."

143

" "Tamazul" ... can be identified as the Bufo marinus". {another candidate for this identification may be Bufo alavarius (SDT)}

"k>as is also a K>iche> term for raccoon. The Tzotzil term for raccoon ... is also applied to the indigo snake. ... The indigo ... is known to eat the Bufo marinus."

SBTT = http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=snake-bites-the-toxic-toa

SDT = http://www.erowid.org/archive/sonoran_desert_toad/davisWeil.htm

p. 133, Fig. 7.3.b human-headed bird depicted on Tonina monument {cf. [Hellenic] human-headed Harpuiai birds}

pp. 181-184 [myth common to tribes in Verapaz] earthquake-god Xucaneb

p.

earthquake-god

181

"The sixteenth-century Mora`n dictionary ... notes that Xucaneb was the most powerful mam ... and that his mountain was the source of the earth rumblings ... . ... Xucaneb causes the first earthquake when he thrashes around after inhaling the chile pepper in his blowgun ... . ... Xucaneb lives on his mountain with his young, beautiful daughter, Basket Grass {cf. green herb (as name?) of yellow-striped-skull-headed goddess in C.B.M. p. 34} ... . One day, the hero of the story, named Thorn Broom, is out deer hunting on the mountain ... . {cf. white deer in C.B. p. 33} ... he takes the skin of a deer and fills it with ashes and dried grass. {This manner of stuffed effigies of deer are used ritually in the Carolinas, Siberia, etc.} ... Xucaneb ... instructs his daughter to take the nixtamal water from soaking corn ... . The next time Thorn Broom passes with his

182

deer, he slips ... and scatters ... on the ground ... tobacco seed, and ... it soon germinates {cf. plants germinating (?) on roof of peaked temple in C.B.M. p. 37} and grows into a flowering plant. {cf. flower in C.B.M. p. 37} ... Borrowing the skin of a hummingbird, he transformed himself into this beautiful bird and flies to the tobacco plant. {cf. hummingbirds (?) in C.B.M. p. 36} ... Eventually she places the bird in her bosom and retires for the night. In ... her room, the hummingbird Thorn Broom ... transforms back into his human form, and has sexual intercourse with the girl. {Hera took pity on Zeus "only when he adopted the disguise of a bedraggled cuckoo, and tenderly warmed him in her bosom. There he at once assumed his true shape and ravished her" (GM 12a).} ... Thorn Broom smears achiote on Xucaneb’s divination mirror ... so that he cannot locate them, and he loads Xucaneb’s blowgun with ground chile. {with blowgun cf. breathing straight snake in C.B.M, p. 37} ... When ... Xucaneb ... picks up his blowgun ... to suck them back {cf. North American Indian myths about "sucking monsters" who suck in persons from a distance} ..., he sucks in chile pepper and begins to cough violently. ... [Sent by Xucaneb,] The thunderbolt god sets out in pursuit after dressing in black clothes (rain clouds) and picking up his drum (thunder) and ax (lightning). As the dark cloud of the thunderbolt approaches the couple, Thorn Broom borrows a shell from a turtle and dives under the water. {cf. turtle in gushing water (?) in C.B.M. p. 36} ... Basket Grass borrows ... a crab shell ... for her escape. ... The mountain lord has an armadillo form ... . ...

183

Thorn Broom surfaces, ... to see the remains of his wife {cf. amputated black leg of red maize in C.B. p. 37} spread across the water ..., but he has dragonflies gather her remains into thirteen water jars. He opens the first jar and discovers that the remains of his wife have turned into snakes. Various insects, worms, lizards, spiders, scorpions, caterpillars, and toads are in the other jars, but he finds his wife restored in the thirteenth jar. ... Thorn Broom dumps the contents of the twelve first jars into a canoe filled with water and crushed tobacco leaves. ... this tobacco is said to be the source of the venom now found in these animals. ...

The restored Basket Grass is ... lacking in sexual organs {perhaps indicated by red-and-blue succulent plant at yellow-striped-skull-headed goddess in C.B. p. 33}, so Thorn Bush has a deer walk on her crotch, and the hoofprint creates a vulva. {cf. "sharpened hooves" of Ponca deer-woman (DW); "hooves" of Karuk deer-woman (DW&LM)} He also has a rat urinate in his wife’s vagina ... . ... After a confrontation, the wife leaves and goes to live with a vulture girl." {cf. Kemetian vulture-goddess}

 

"In the final episode found in a Poqomchi> tale, ... Thorn Broom leaves his wife in a cave on a cliff {cf. Australian aboriginal myth of wives abandoned in a cave on a cliff by their husband} ... . Finally, the smallest lightning bolt god has a woodpecker tap the stone to find its weakest point, and then splits it open" to obtain the maize. {possibly indicated by maize-kernel (?) ray-beam out of enclosed red square in C.B. p. 38}

C.B.M. = Codex Borgianus Mexicanus

GM = Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955.

DW = http://www.thorthebarbarian.com/Nemeton/deerwoman.htm

DW&LM = http://www.endicott-studio.com/rdrm/rrwoman.html

the "Paddler Gods"

Classic Maya

Hellenic

"Old Stingray God" (p. 282) :

Kirke’s son Tele-gonos had stingray-tipped spear as weapon (GM 171.k).

his fellow-paddler was "Old Jaguar Paddler" (p. 283).

Another son of Kirke was Latinus (GM 170.w), whose brethren were

"One Ixim and four supernatural animals are their passengers." (p. 282) 1 Ixim was associated with

Nausi-noos ‘sailor-mind’ & Nausi-thoos ‘sailor-impetuous’.

goddess Ixik (p. 191), goddess of (p. 304) waterlilies = (p. 305) Xilonen, goddess of waterlilies.

heroine Nausi-kaa ‘sailor-burning’ found Odusseus at a river.

1 Hun-ahpu had 2 wives (p. 57) : Lady Bone Water and Lady Blood;

Tele-makhos had 2 wives (CDCM, s.v. "Telemachus") : Nausi-kaa & Polu-kaste;

by Lady Blood he had 2 sons : Hun-ahpu & X-Balam-ke.

by Polu-kaste he had 2 sons : Homeros & Perse-polis.

Hun-ahpu was beheaded (p. 217).

Homeros was hanged by the neck.

According to Las Casas, Exbalanquen (X-Balam-ke) "journeyed from an Alta Verapaz cave to the underworld" (p. 227), this being the karst cavern at Xucaneb Mountain (p. 228).

There is a "cavern" at the S^us^ mound nigh Dizful (N&P, p. 447).

N&P = William Sandys Wright Vaux : Nineveh and Persepolis. 3rd edn, London, 1851.

volcanic centipede

p.

volcano

248

"The indigenous names for Volca`n Santa Mari`a are Xcanul, "volcano"; Q>aq>xanul, "fire volcano"; and Yaxcanul".

249

[Annals of the Cakc^ikelob] "While Q>aq>awitz goes into the inferno ["erupting Volca`n Santa Mari`a"], Zakitzunun pours water on it to extinguish its blaze. ... The crater of Volca`n Santa Mari`a contains thirteen colored stones, and from these Q>aq>witz takes the sacchoq, "white flint stone," and descends the mountain with it. The sacchoq ... is said to be the heart of the mountain ... . {is this heart the sprouted heart of tattooed-faced goddess (CBM p. 44) = tattooed-faced goddess with centipede (C.F.-M. p. 27, lower left)?} ... a centipede was located in the crater of Volca`n Santa Mari`a ... . {with the centipede and its white stone possibly cf. the centipede and white bull : "I am the Centipede on the Day of the Centipede, I am the White Bull" (Coffin Text 227 – AECT1, p. 180)-- if so, the bellowing of this bull might = the echo of Tepe-yollotl; also cf. the "snow-white bull" ridden by Europe to Gortune (GM 58.b) founded by Gortus grandson of Hephaistos (GM 88.h) the volcanic (GM 23.2).} ... the centipede at the heart of Volca`n Santa Mari`a was the origin of the wild Dance of the Centipede".

p. 248 "Volca`n Santa Mari`a is thought to have been first located at a place called Kab>yo>k, Xecabyuc, or Xeococ, "leg of turtle," ... of the kok turtle". {cf. Chinese myth of amputation of turtle (as sky) in northwest}

C.F.-M. = Codex Feje`rva`ry-Mayer

AECT1 = R. O. Faulkner : The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts. Vol. I. 1973.

pp. 257-260 crocodilian earthquake-deities

p.

deity

257

"Yegua Achi> [Yewa Ac^i>] is a corruption of the term oyew achi>, a K>iche> title for war captains ... . In the Achi> stories from Cubulco,

 

Sipac removes Volca`n __

from the communities of __ respectively."

 

de Agua,

Xinacati,

 

de Fuego, and

Chicocox, and

 

Santa Mari`a

Xeococ

258

"K>iche> story about Yegua Achi>, who traveled to a mountain shrine near Huehuetenango and left the imprint of his knee and testicles on a stone there".

 

"In the K>iche> stories from Momostenango, Yegua Achi> ... carries Volca`n Cerro Quemada from a location near Antigua ... . ... In another episode, Yegua Achi> constructs a road from Momostenango to Totonicapa`n ... and down to Lake Atitla`n."

259

[K>iche> tale from Rabinal, concerning the moving of Belehuh (indigenous name for Los Pajales mountain)] "Sipac obtained Los Pajales Mountain, ... he was carrying it when he saw three young goddesses bathing in a river. ... According to the story, the goddesses were bathing in the Ri`o Cala` near Pueblo Viejo, which separates Chimiagua Mountain from Los Pajales Mountain. They are described as colored corn goddesses ... . ... Sipac ... proposes to them. ... The girls counter by promising to marry him if he can catch a crab for them to eat. ... While Sipac searches for crabs, the yellow corn goddess creates a crab from her hair ribbon and places it in a nearby cave. She instructs Sipac to enter the cave on his back to get the crab." "The three corn goddesses ... are reminiscent of the three goddesses Sahagu`n describes (... book 2, 22) : Chalchiuhtlicue (Jade Skirt),

260

Chicomecoatl (Seven Snake), and Huixtocihuatl ... . The first two were thought to represent corn, while the last was specifically associated with salt. Although the Achi> story does not indicate from which place Sipac moved Los pajales Mountain, there is an extremely important salt location down from Meauan Mountain called Montan~a Nueve Cerros, "mountain of nine hills," that was likely the source."

 

"The word cabracan literally means "two his legs," but Cabracan ... spent his time ... stamping his foot on the ground. ... his actions caused ... landslides. ... Seven Macaw and his sons were active during the era of the wooden people which ended ... with a black rain." {with Seven Macaw (wukub cakix ‘Ursa Major’ – p. 279) and the "black rain", cf. king Arthur (art-ur ‘bear-tail’) as raven (in Cornwall of Don Quixote) of Ravens and the Black Rain (R – Part 2)}

R = http://www.druidry.org/obod/lore/animal/raven.html

pp. 37-39, 266-283 identities of constellations

p.

constellation

its identity

attribution

37

be vo> ‘road of water’

section of galaxy overhead during rainy season

Tzotzil

 

be taiv ‘road of frost’

section of galaxy overhead during dry season

"

 

s-be lent>y>u ‘road of dew"

galaxy

Hakaltek

 

white road

"

Yucatec at Yalcoba

 

"road to the underworld"

black rift in galaxy

K>ic^e>

 

lifted up by "migratory bird"

Crux Australis (Southern Cross)

"

38

Hun-ahpu

sun

 
 

Xbalamke

full moon

 

39

400 Boys

Pleiades

Popol Vuh

65

3 hearthstones = Mixcoatl, Tozpan, Ihuitl

Al-nitak, Saif, & Rigel in Orion

 

266

C^ixoy river

northern portion of galaxy

 
 

Samala` river

southern portion of galaxy

 
 

Motawa river

eastern portion of ecliptic

 
 

Grixalva river

western portion of ecliptic

 

267

Sipac

"entered under" the horizon

Ac^i>

268

3 hearthstones = 3 Atitlan volcanoes

Al-nitak, Saif, & Rigel in Orion

K>ic^e>

 

turtle, peccary

stars in Orion

 

269

wedded couple kneeling on mat

Taurus

Kaqc^ikel

270

Quadripartite Badge Monster

Crux Australis (Southern Cross)

Classic

271

Zipacna (= Sipac)

Gemini as "center of the world"

K>ic^e>

272

hawk’s prey

Sagittarius

"

 

Xik ‘hawk’

Aquila (Eagle)

"

 

Wok ‘collared falcon’

" "

Classic

274

pet ‘spindle whorl’

[caelestial north pole]

"

 

"whirlwind" of Q>aq>awitz at whirlpool in lake Atitlan

caelestial "southern pole"

Kaqc^ikel

279

Wuqub> Kaqix (‘7 Macaw’)

7 stars of Ursa Major

K>ic^e>

 

c^imal ek ‘shield stars’ = goddess C^imalmat

Ursa Minor

"

283

"Old Stingray God"

Cassiopeia

Classic

 

"Old Jaguar Paddler" of meteors

Perseus of Perseid meteors

"

p. 281 "xulu as "[spirit] familiars appearing alongside rivers" and ah xulu as a diviner."

p. 274 storm-god

"In the Central Mexican Historia de los mexicanos por sus pinturas,

In the mythology of the ... Yucatec Maya ...

... similar to Lacandon

the sixth layer of the sky was a place of ... storms ... .

in the sixth layer lived ... Yumtsakob, "Father Lighting Bolts."

deity Nohotsakyum."

the "Paddler Gods"

Classic Maya

Hellenic

"Old Stingray God" (p. 282) :

Kirke’s son Tele-gonos had stingray-tipped spear as weapon (GM 171.k).

his fellow-paddler was "Old Jaguar Paddler" (p. 283).

Another son of Kirke was Latinus (GM 170.w), whose brethren were

"One Ixim and four supernatural animals are their passengers." (p. 282) 1 Ixim was associated with

Nausi-noos ‘sailor-mind’ & Nausi-thoos ‘sailor-impetuous’.

goddess Ixik (p. 191), goddess of (p. 304) waterlilies = (p. 305) Xilonen, goddess of waterlilies.

heroine Nausi-kaa ‘sailor-burning’ found Odusseus at a river.

1 Hun-ahpu had 2 wives (p. 57) : Lady Bone Water and Lady Blood;

Tele-makhos had 2 wives (CDCM, s.v. "Telemachus") : Nausi-kaa & Polu-kaste;

by Lady Blood he had 2 sons : Hun-ahpu & X-Balam-ke.

by Polu-kaste he had 2 sons : Homeros & Perse-polis.

Hun-ahpu was beheaded (p. 217).

Homeros was hanged by the neck.

According to Las Casas, Exbalanquen (X-Balam-ke) "journeyed from an Alta Verapaz cave to the underworld" (p. 227), this being the karst cavern at Xucaneb Mountain (p. 228).

There is a "cavern" at the S^us^ mound nigh Dizful (N&P, p. 447).

N&P = William Sandys Wright Vaux : Nineveh and Persepolis. 3rd edn, London, 1851.

Karen Bassie-Sweet : Maya Sacred Geography and the Creator Deities. U of OK Pr, Norman, 2008.