Evolution of Malay Magic

pp. 8-9 sun & moon

p. 8

white jinn in sun guardeth the gates of the sky {cf. Vis.n.u, door-keeper according to Atharva Veda}

pp. 8-9

his brother 7-headed black jinn in moon hath (p. 9) "one foot on the heart of the earth"

pp. 19-20 address to the "banshee" Lansuyar who flieth "by night" (p. 19) [in upper Perak]

p.

"if thou alightest on __"

thy name (aspect) is __

19

a tree

Mistress Stickfast

 

[boulder projecting out of] a rapid

San Ranga

 

a tree-stump

Fair Bhuta

20

the ground

Fair Swaying One

 

the house-ladder

Fair Sitter

 

house-door

Fair Bar-door

 

roof-beam

Fair Peerer

 

the mat

Fair Seated Woman

+Lansuyar

"in the shape of an owl with the face of a cat." (pp. 18-19) parentage of +Lansuyar: "sprung from the lid of a cooking-pot in a deserted house" (p. 19)

owl-deity is skull-headed in Codex Borgia, p. 14; but cranium is in lidded pot beside goddess holding small feline (cf. cat) on in Codex Borgia, p. 57

for praegnant woman, threatened by *Lansuyar: "betel-vine which must be given her to chew" (p. 19): cf. "twenty-five quids of betel" (p. 108) at state-regalia-renovation festival at upper Perak

the scenes on p. 57 are followed by 25 more scenes on pp. 58-60 of Codex Borgia

spirits which assume animal- &c.- forms

p.

spirit

function

form

16-17

+‘To S`ri Lam {cf. Maya lam}

 

female crocodile

18

+Lansuyar

"in the nape of her neck is a hole, which she is terrified may be found" (p. 19) {cf. Inuit sun-goddess having fleshless back which she is reluctant to reveal}

owl with the face of a cat

20

+Pengalan

seeketh to suck blood from woman giving birth; if successful, death of the woman is the result. "a wman’s head and neck with trailing viscera, which shine at night"

"The lights of a hill in Perak" called C^ankat Asah [?= "rock ... mushrooms in stone ... on famous mountains by the sea. ... All of them glow in the darkness" (AM&R, p. 179, quoted in Taoism and the Arts of China, p. 129)]

21

Bajan

"is kept in a stoppered bamboo vessel and fed with eggs"

civet-cat

 

Polon

"Every day the owner must feed this familiar with blood from his or her finger."

chirping "bird-like"

 

Pe^lsit

nigget, owned by woman, who "must seize the tongue, whereupon ... the child vanishes. ... the tongue that can change into this familiar must be bitten out" (p. 22) {cf. <arabian belief in spirit-woman who biteth out tongue of man; cf. also Bodish ro-lans}

house-cricket

pp. 29-30 Jibra>il (Gabriel), the angel of revelation

p. 29

6

pinions, each composed of:

 

100

smaller wings;

   

he is covered with saffron hairs;

   

between his eyen is a sun, and

   

betwixt every 2 hairs of his body a moon & stars.

 

3

times every day he diveth:

 

360

times into the "Sea of Light", and

   

every drop of water from his wings createth a Ruh.aniyun ("spiritual") angel in his likeness

pp. 29-30

2

of his pinions he expandeth only to destroy a hamlet or town.

p. 30

2

green pinions open only annually on the "night of destiny", when from the deciduous destiny-tree there fall leaves, each inscribed with the name of someone fated to die during that year.

p. 30 Mika>il (Michael), who originated 500 years earlier than Gabriel

 

is covered with hairs, every hair possessing:

1,000,000

faces [tongues?] having:

1,000

mouths, each mouth containing:

1,000

tongues; while his

1,000,000

eyen by weeping create kerubi^m in his likeness. These Kerubi^m control rain.

p. 30 >israf>il (*S‘rap>el), who originated 500 years earlier than Mika>il

 

whose head is level with the Throne of >al-lah while his feet reach lower than the lowest earth.

[4]

With one pinion he envelopeth the west, with another the east; with a third he covereth his lower body, and with a fourth he covereth his upper body.

 

Between his eyen is the jewel-"tablet of fate".

 

His duty it will be to sound the last trump on the Day of Judgement.

pp. 30-31 [<azra>il,] the angel of death

p. 30

[7]

bigger than the 7 earths & the 7 heavens, he was kept chained with:

 

70,000

chains until the creation of >adam.

pp. 30-31

 

When he was seen by the angels, they fell into a faint that lasted for:

p. 31

1,000

years.

 

7,000

pinions hath he.

   

His body is full of eyen, as many as there are living beings. Whenever a mortal dieth, an eye [of his] closeth. He hath:

 

4

faces. When he taketh the life of a prophet or angel, he sheweth the face on his head; the face on his chest is shewn to [ordinary] believers, the face on his back to infidels, and the face on the soles of his two feet to Jnun.

p. 31 Kiraman Katibin "Noble Writers" recording one’s deeds

goods deeds are written down by the angel on one’s right,

bad by the angel on one’s left.

p. 32 [alternative accounts of] origin of the Jnun, by colors

[also p. 58] originated from mangrove-leaf that fell into __

__ Jnun

originated from the __ of S‘akti-muna ["power of silence’], a great serpent

 

king of

breath

sea

white

whites of the eyen

gate of forest

black

iris-es of the eyen

 

blue

green sky

green

 

yellow

 

lightning

voice

{"green sky" is also a Daoist notion}

p. 34 proper shape of a descendant of Sah^r: as witnessed by Alexandros ho Megalos

 

huge as a masjid (mosque), having:

7

heads, each with:

2

faces, each face having

4

eyen;

2

snakey locks of hair on each forehead.

 

duck’s feet, and bull’s tail

Sah^r was the jinn who stole [magical] ring of Sulayman (Solomon, S^lomoh); and assuming Sulayman’s shape reigned in his stead for 40 days.

numerics of Jnun

p. 32

19

Zabanyah ("Guardian") angels, under Malik as their chief, are in charge of Hell.

p. 34

10

daughters of >iblis [p. 35 queen of S^eba> had Jinni mother & a human father]

p. 39 Jnun of the royal trumpets of Perak

the 4 Children of the Iron Pestle

Old Grannie from Up-river

the Prince of the Rolling Waves

the Children of the Gaffer Who Dwelleth in the Sky

p. 48 similes for the universe

the __

as __

world

tray

sky

umbrella

p. 48 KUN (Muslim "word of creation") as tree

"the seed was created and from the seed the root, from the root the stem, and from the stem the leaves" {cf. living metallic trees of Aladdin in the 1001 Nights}

{KUN was a city of brass (1st DBRY h-YMYM 18:8)}

p. 57 address to the Earth-Spirit

at / in __

thou art __

daybreak

Lord of the Sun-Ray

morning

Lord of Fortune

mid-day

Lord of the World

evening

Lord of the Evening Light

high forest

Leafy Orchid

mid plain

Flat One

rivulet

Flowing One

water-spring

Trickler

origins [as mentioned in charms]

p. 58

female toad was mother of tiger

p. 59

<ali: his voice is thunder, the flash of his weapons is forked ligtning

body-tissues & winds in them

p. 62 body-tissues created by archangels

pp. 176-177 winds in body, corresponding to steps toward union with >al-lah

were created by __

body-tissues

wind in __

stages

Jibra>il

skin & hair

skin & pores

1st observance of law

Mika>il

flesh & blood

3rd flesh & blood

truth

>israf>il

bones & sinews

2nd sinews & bones

mystic path under spiritual guide

<azra>il

life & seed

4th life & seed

perfect gnosis

pp. 62-63 sites of the palaces of h^alif-s within the body of the exorcized

p.

the __ (organ)

is the palace of __ (h^alif)

p. 173 [alternative associations of organ with h^alif-s]]

62

heart

>abu Bakr

liver: for divination to determine where river may be forded

 

lungs

<omar

spleen

 

spleen

<otman

lungs

63

gallbladder

<ali

gallbladder

pp. 72-73 animals as souls of plants & of metal-ores & of constructed dwellings

p.

the soul of __

is __ (animal)

72

camphor-tree

cicada

 

rice

grasshopper

 

rattan

stickinsect

 

eaglewood[-tree], coconut-palm, human

bird

73

Nur-i-Muh.ammad "Radiance of Muh.ammad"

nuri ("parrot") of Muh.ammad

 

tin-ore

[water-]buffalo

 

gold

barking-deer [in Kelantan]

 

house

cricket [in Negri Sembilan]

 

dug-out canoe

firefly [in Patani]

 

large boat

snake [in Patani]

[according to the Besisi] the soul of a large boat is "a bright snake with seven souls in the form of iridescent rainbows." {cf. Norse serpent-ships, C^imu rainbow-serpent-ships, and African rainbow-serpent gods (Dan-ballah in Dahomey, etc.)}

p. 84 the voyages over the 4 seas

[also p. 81] voyage upon "the sea that is __"

to __ (country) [taken backwards]

black

Siam

green

China

blue

India

purple

Rome

{Roman imperial purple, etc.}

p. 93 origins of the Jnun of the soil of Mt. Meru

born in the __

are [Jnun] called __

clouds

Beautiful Billowy Ones

sky

Pendent Ones

fig-tree

Peerers

water

Crawlers

paths

Up-Stickers

these "idols of iron" (p.92) may be enforcers of oaths, for "The drinking of water in which iron has been put strengthens an oath" (p. 74). "I live in a fort with seven walls of steel." (p. 93) [This may be of Iranian derivation, as per characterization by Herodotos of Hagmatana (capital of Media) as surrounded with multiple rings of concentric walls.]

p. 94 guardian-spirits

guardian

of __

Nuh.

earth

Ya<qub

rock

Luqman

iron

Sulayman

"all living things"

"all living things" would include the any antient worked flintstone "(which the Malay atkes to be a meteorite), as it has life and will attract lightning to disappear in a flash" (p. 74).

p. 94 [herewith are invoked the :]

44

angels

4

archangels

30

chapters of the Qur>an

referrring to "the shadow of one beloved by ... angels forty-and-four." (p. 68) {here, the stipulation that "One should not walk upon a[nother] person’s shadow’ (loc. cit.) is Hawai>ian et al.: the Besisi shadow-soul (loc. cit.) = [Maori] ata—this would be distinct from the se^mangat "spark"[-soul] (p. 64)}

p. 95 [for exorcism of the land-site, the exorcizer’s altar is strewn with :] "clods red and black" {cf. [Kemetian] DSR.t & KM.t = [Aztec] Tillan Tlapallan}

p. 158 monthly rituals of repetitive recitations at midnight with one’s eyen closed, to be followed by gazing: in order to obtain prognostication (by color) of one’s own death during that month

month

# of recitations

of the spell "__"

gazing at __

which may appear __

1st

10

Say, >al-lah is one!

moon

black

5th & 6th

   

lamp

 

7th & 8th

7

Say, I seek refuge with the Lord of the Daybreak!

water in a bowl

red

of Fasting

9

Praise be to >al-lah

moon

"one’s shadow"

11th & 12th

1

the creed [There is no >ila but >al-lah]

sky

red

[ with "one’s shadow" in moon, connect woman who "tries to cast her own shadow" as it is cast by the moon on the night before the full moon (p. 21)]

p. 144 tiered plat-form bier for funerals of nobility

5

storeys of bier of commoner-chief of Jelebu

7

storeys of bier of raja

9

maidens seated on the litter: 8 holding the corpse in position & 1 holding plaintain-plant

16

girls are used to support the corpse of royalty

p. 164 numerics of the Basmala (Bismillah)

600

times written down & worn, it will bring honor

50

times read over tyrant, will end tyranny

786

times recitation for 7 consecutive days, to gain desire

61

times written down & worn, it will cure barrenness

pp. 174-175 nature & accouterments of the Perfect Man

p.

the / a __

is his __

174

the Throne of >al-lah

heart

 

the Pen of >al-lah

mind

 

the guarded Tablet of >al-lah

soul

175

Jibra>il

on his right

 

Mika>il

on his left

 

hooded snake (cobra)

loin-cloth

 

elephant in muste

steed

 

lightning

ear-posy

 

tiger

shadow

p. 177 S.ufi correspondences between worlds and parts of the body

the __ world

is in the __

material

tongue

invisible intelligible

windpipe

"world of power ... of the divine nature"

"first stomach of ruminants"

pp. 177-180 The Fortress of the Unity of >al-lah [Kelantan MSS.]

pp. 179-180 old fortress = 7 attributes of man:-

life

knowledge

power

will

hearing

sight

speech

AM&R = James R. Ware (tr.): Alchemy, Medicine, and Religion in the China of A.D. 320. Cambridge (MA): MIT Pr, 1966.

R. O. Winstedt: Shaman Saiva and Sufi. Constable & Co. Ltd., London, 1925.