Local Belief ... among the Ke`o of Central Flores [on south coast]

pp. xx-xxi transcription of phonemes






upside-down e


backwards c


glottalized b


glottalized d



p. 40 aequivalent phonemes in dialects of Ke`o [western is more archaic]













p. 42 cosmology






"seven-layered heavens and thirty-layered underworlds".

42, fn. 22


"seven levels above the world and ... a further thirty below".

App. 1a (pp. 291-3) myth of Mbu>e Nitu




"He could still hear his cocks crowing from his hamlet Pau. ...


The elder sister was at the top of the palm-tree, while the younger one was waiting for her at the bottom of the tree. ... the younger sister escaped. However, the older sister at the top was caught ... . ... When she was caught, the girl transformed herself into ... a centipede ... . The last transformation was into a poisonous insect (tabuan). ... He closed it up and made a small hole to allow the tabuan to breathe ... . At mid-day, ... he went straight into the house through the central bridge (data ora). ... After opening the pumpkins he found rice. The rice was collected in a big basket, mboda, ... made ... from bark. ...


Nitu went to ask for a big pig from her brothers in the Cave >Uwi->Iwa. ... Her brother appeared in the form of a big dragon at the end of the couch (balai-balai). The dog which was slaughtered for her brother was a mouse. The bride-price given in return was lontar-leaves coloured with lime and turmeric instead of gold. ... At the time, everyone watched Mbue>e Nitu dancing. The people ... climbed the coconut trees to watch her clearly. ... She gave birth to seven children : five sons and two daughters. The five sons were Le`na Se`ko, Tae Se`ko, Raga Se`ko, Me`o Se`ko and Be`le Se`ko. The two daughters were Lengga Se`ko and Lejo Se`ko. ... If someone wanted to carry him [the 1st son, Le`na] in their arms, he suddenly transformed into a green snake. But when he was let free, he then transformed back into a human being. Lengga Se`ko ... was involved in a competition with a man who played the drum. ... ‘If I get tired of dancing while you are still beating the drum, I’ be your wife. ...’ The girl, Lengga Se`ko competed but failed and she finally became the wife of the drummer, in the house of Piru Pola. ... After quite a long period of living together as husband and wife, ... >Embu Ndona We`a slapped his wife on her cheek. >Embu Nitu then escaped to the bank of a river and disappeared."

p. 118, fn. 91 "According to a Worowatu version, Mbu>e Nitu was a mythical girl received by >Embu Ndona Wea from Paulundu as an exchange from a heavenly old man whom the latter caught while he was stealing his palm-wine."

App. 1b (pp. 295-7) myth of Mbu>e Wondo




"Seven girls ... went down to the coast to collect molluscs ... . ... The youngest girl ... saw a flat shell (kima kae) in a hole. She put her hand in to take it, but ... she could not take back her hand because she wore a bracelet from an elephant tusk (subho). When she was caught in the hole, the tide was rising. ... The six sisters went home. ...


When they were mourning and lamenting, a small mouse (musk) went rapidly into the sea, straight into the house of the whale (>Embu Ngembu). ... They then threw the hot stones ... into the whale’s mouth. ... The whale then died and fell down at the water-fall ... . ... The sea continued receding. ... The sea receded very quickly a very long way. ... >Embu >Uta seeing that the sea receded so far, then followed with ... eggs as an offering. ...


Then she started to move, leading the sea back to it normal shore-line. The sea followed her. When she reached a particular distance, she ... then planted a line of sea-pandanus trees. The sea stopped there."

App. 1c (pp. 298-9) myth of Tonga Mbu>e So>a




">Embu Nde`ru ... heard a baby crying on a liana (tadi kada) tree... . She found a new-born baby-girl ... very small, like a little finger. ... She gave the child the name Tonga. ...


Tonga ... with ... a young man called Taku Nuru met ... . She then married him and gave birth to three children : Waja De`>e, Waja >Ake and Waja Se`bho."

App. 1d (pp. 300-2) myth of Mbu>e Dombo Nio




"a couple lived on the top of Golden Stone Mountain. The wife gave birth to seven children. The sons were Niko and Nima; the second from the last was Mona. ... The last born was Mbu>e Dombo (Girl of the coconut sprout), because she was born in the form of a coconut and grew up in the form of a coconut tree. ...


‘... She is at the top of the coconut tree’. They saw a beautiful girl. ... Hearing her brother Mona’s voice, she came down. ... . ... she died. However, her fat was sprinkled everywhere on the garden-beds. Her bones were in the last garden-bed ... . When Mona arrived at his sister’s garden, he collected her fat with cotton ... he gathered the bones ... . ... He put them in a hole near the dying coconut tree. The coconut grew back


... . ... Another girl appeared on the coconut sprout. ... >Embu >Eko Witu was born with golden teeth."

App. 1e (pp. 303, 42) myth of Watu Ke`ke Re`




"when the gongs and the drums were beaten, many young men and women came down from the sky by means of a liana tree (tadi de`ke). ... One night, the people ... put out a trap. ... . ... a couple was caught ... . The young man was Ke`ke and the girl was Re`."


"The sky and earth were then ... apart".

App. 1f (pp. 304-5) myth of the red pig




"Rangga Jani ... saw a small red pig in a pool. ... He then took it to raise. ... He went inside from under the house .. . When he got into the house, he


saw a beautiful girl [named Dinda] ... .He found the skin (uwa du) of the red pig left in the corner. He took it. ... However, the girl was dumb. ... The people ... suggested : ‘Rangga, .. take a bath in the blood. ... .’ Rangga did as proposed. {The Yao people have, as a custom of expiation, to "take a bath in ... blood" (HChM, p. 53). The Mithraic baptism was likewise by being "washed in the blood".} ... Dinda could then speak as a normal human being. Both of them then married and had seven children in the form of pigs. ... One of their seven children was left on the beach. The female one was left. The fishermen from the island of Ende ... approached and saw a female baby. They took it".

p. 118 "The Red Pig (Wawi Tolo) myth tells us about the founding ancestor of Riti (Tonggo) named Embu Rangga Jani."

pp. 118-9, fn. 92 red beast-deities

p. 118, fn. 92

"the Wawi Tolo mythology, and the claim of a Muslim group in Daja that they are his descendants ... .

{The abstinence from eating pork would be assumed to be reverence for, and worship of, swine. This fact would provide incentive for any worshippers of swine-deities to designate themselves as Muslim.}


... the Kalang myth of origin that a group of Muslims in Java have a red dog as their ancestor ... .

{cf. Kaleb (‘Hound’) of S^pat.i^m 1:12-15 (alluding to the northern <arabian tribe Kalb); the various mythic Irish heroes named Cu` (‘Hound’); etc.}


That myth recounts : ‘A nymph, living on earth in the form of a sow, becomes pregnant after inadvertently swallowing some sperm secret by a god descended to earth. She gives birth to a girl of great beauty.

{There was a Kemetic goddess "giant sow, suckling many piglets. These piglets represented the stars, which she swallowed each morning before dawn." ("NN")} {A goddess who "dreamed that she swallowed the sun" (HChM, p. 99) was wife of god Di Ku, who gave his "daughter as wife" to "Panhu, a mythical dog" (HChM, p. 100).}


When this girl grows, she spends her time weaving. In consequence of a vow she makes after dropping her weaving-shuttle,

{"Then the heavenly-weaving-maiden was astounded at the sight, therefore she was killed by a shuttle sticking into her pubic region." (Kojiki 3:3 – "K3")} {"Amaterasu started with alarm, and wounded herself with the shuttle." (Nihongi – "S", p. 10)}


she marries her dog and gives birth to a handsome boy. When grown up, this boy goes out ... . ...

{The hound "Panhu received the emperor’s daughter as his wife." Their children "became the ancestors of the Miao, Yao, She, and Li ethnic groups." (HChM, p. 180)}

p. 119, fn. 92

Several years later he comes back and marries his mother, who later recognizes his as her son by a scar on his head’ ".

{Coyote was recognized, on account of a scar on his eyebrow, as committer of incest with his own daughter (M&TCI, p. 42).}

HChM = Lihui Yang & Deming An : Handbook of Chinese Mythology. Oxford U Pr, 2005.

"NN" = "Nut – Nuit" http://www.crystalinks.com/nut.html

"K3" = http://j-myth.info/english/kojiki03.html

"S" = Nelly Naumann : "Sakahagi : the "Reverse Flaying". http://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/publications/afs/pdf/a396.pdf

M&TCI = By Robert Harry Lowie : Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, Volume XXV, Pt. I. NY, 1918. http://books.google.com/books?id=CsTH9-BCjasC&pg=PA42&lpg=PA42&dq=myth+Coyote+scar+recognized&source=bl&ots=3e66OPwrKH&sig=nXNi3uoXzAac8JNeymOhyatECsE&hl=en&ei=yP5yTYO1O8H78Aa53bGwDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&sqi=2&ved=0CBoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false

STUDIA INSTITUTI ANTHROPOS, Vol. 50 = Philipus Tule : Longing for the House of God, Dwelling in the House of the Ancestors : Local Belief, Christianity, and Islam among the Ke`o of Central Flores. Academic Pr, Fribourg (Switzerland), 2004.