Korean shamanism


pp. 221-233 Manabu Waida : "Some remarks on the myths of the Flower Contest".

p. 226 flower-contest myth





[C^eju islander] "the goddess Samseung-halmang ... the goddess of childbirth, ... was originally a maiden from Mengjinguk or the country of long life. ... she competed in a flower contest with a maiden from Yowanguk or the country of the dragon king located in the ocean. The maiden from Mengjinguk won the contest and was appointed the goddess of childbirth, whereas the maiden from Yowanguk left for the other world where she became the goddess of death called Kusamseung-halmang".

cf. the "female serpent" of Maionia : she plucked the "pain-killing" "flower of Zeus" (Nonnos : Dionysiaka 25:452sq. – DM2); cf. likewise the serpent of Maionia associated at river Sagaris (‘Skuthian weapon’) with (Huginos : Astronomika 2:14 -- DM1) queen Omphale ‘navel’ (her name referring perhaps to


[Alarsk Buryat] while asleep, the blooming flowers of Toltu: H^an were exchanged. [p. 223 therefore, Toltu: H^an became Erlik, ruler over the dead]

the waterlily-flower growing from the navel of Brahma < *Mragh- : [Hellenic] Morpheus ‘dream’).

DM2 = http://www.theoi.com/Ther/DrakonMaionios2.html

DM1 = http://www.theoi.com/Ther/DrakonMaionios1.html

pp. 230-231 myth of receiving advice from frog




[North Korea] "the cosmogonic giant ... to discover the sources of water and fire ... turns to the grasshopper and the frog for advice, and eventually obtains help from the mouse."

cf. [Bambara (of Mali)] "it was believed that during the dry season, the toad transformed itself into a mouse." (T&T, p. 166)


[Altai Kizi] Bai U:lgen, "upon his return from heaven, ... finds the human body already animated by Erlik. ... Bai U:lgen decides to act only after receiving advice from the frog".

cf. [Aztec] myth of first people from animated bone-fragments : cf. [Zulu] myth (T&T, p. 165) of bullfrog’s breaking bones of winged lion’s (= Sphinx?) victims.

[Sebop (of Borneo)] headhunting was instituted at "frog’s advice" (PTB, cap. 17).

In Borneo, "taking Hop-Frog's advice" , vengeance was taken for the striking of a dwarf-woman (according to Edgar Allan Poe – H-F) : this is based on the tale of king Arthur’s striking a hunchbacked dwarf-man, and insulting a hunchbacked dwarf-woman) – cf. [Luhya (of Kenya) myth] the woman Nas^ikufu (‘hunchback’) was swallowed by a giant toad (T&T, p. 164).

T&T = Adrian Morgan : Toads and Toadstools.

PTB = http://www.fullbooks.com/The-Pagan-Tribes-of-Borneo7.html

H-F = http://www.dagonbytes.com/poe/writings/hop_frog.htm


pp. 235-247 Tae-god Kim : "The concept of gods in Korean shamanism".

p. 238 childbirth-goddess

"men did not exist on earth until a virgin from heaven named Tanggum Aegi married a divine monk and begot three sons. She later became the goddess of childbirth called Samshin Halmoni [Grandmother Samshin] and her sons became Sambul Chesok, three heavenly gods ...

The child is protected by the Samshin until it is seven years old, from this time his welfare is the responsibility of Ch>ilsong, the god of the Seven Stars [Ursa Major]".

p. 238 gods controlling humans

"There are believed to be Ten Great Kings (Ship Taewang) in the Nether World, and the soul of the dead goes through each of the ten palaces of the ten kings for them to judge". {this is of Daoist provenience}

"During his lifetime, a man is believed to live under the auspices of Songju ‘Household god’, Op ‘God of Fortune’, Taegam ‘High Official God’ ".

pp. 239-240 ranking (in declining order) among deities, in opinions of several shamans & shamanesses

p. 239 acc. to Kim Su-hi (female) of Paran

p. 239 acc. to S^im Pok-sun of Wonan

p. 240 acc. to C^on Tae-bok (female) of P>yon-yan

p. 240 acc. to O Un-suk of Seoul

p. 240 acc. to C^an Myon-hun (male) of Seoul

1. C^>on-s^in (‘Heaven-god’)

1. C^>on-s^in

1. C^>on-s^in

1. C^>on-s^in

1. C^>on-s^in


2. C^>on-hwan


3. C^>on-jon


2. Ok-hwan San-je (‘Ultimate Dao’)


4. Ok-hwan San-je


3. Ir-wol-son-s^in (‘Sun-Moon-Stars-god’)

2. Ir-wol-son-s^in

5. Ir-wol-son-s^in

2. C^>il-son (‘7 stars’)

2. C^>il-son

4. C^>il-son

3. C^>il-son

6. C^>il-son

3. San-s^in (‘Mountain-god’)

3. San-s^in

5. San-s^in

4. San-s^in

7. San-s^in


4. Sahae Yon-s^in (‘Dragon of 4 seas’)

6. Sahae Yon-wan (‘Dragon sea-king’)


7. C^>oe Yon C^an-gun-nim

5. C^>oe Il C^an-gun


8. C^an-gun-nim

6. Kwan-son C^e-gun

8. Son-ja


9. Pulsa (‘Monk’)


5. Sambul C^esok


10. C^esok

4. S^in-jan (‘Warrior-god’)


9. S^in-jan

7. S^in-jan

11. S^in-jan

5. Pyol-san (‘Smallpox-god’)


8. Pyol-san


10. Sonag

9. Yon-wan


6. C^an-gun (‘Military General’)

6. C^an-gun


10. Pu-gun


7. Son-ju


11. Son-ju


8. Tae-gam

11. Tae-gam

12. Tae-s^in Halmoni

12. Tae-s^in


9. C^i-s^in (‘Earth-god’)


10. C^o-wan (‘Kitchen-god’)


13. C^o-san-s^in (‘Ancestors’)


7. Kollip (shaman’s god)

11. Kollip

12. Kollip


13. Kollip


13. Hajol


14. Subi


15. Yon-san

14. Yon-san

[in 3 systems, 13 deities praecede the group C^ap-kwi (= Subi & Yon-san)]

p. 241 how the woman Mun Tok-sun became a shamaness

"she began to see, not in dreams but in real life, circles on the wall that radiated bright like the sun and the moon. ... Later she became a shaman through a kut initiation".


"enshrined on the wall of her shibang ‘sacred room or god’s room’ " :-

C^>on-s^in Tae-gam [2 different deities (S^im Pok-su’s #s 1 & 8) amalgamated]

Oban S^in-jan [the latter is Kim Su-hi’s # 4]

San-s^in-ryon [Kim Su-hi’s # 3]

Sambul C^esok [S^im Pok-sun’s # 5]

C^>il-son [Kim Su-hi’s # 2]

Sosan Taesa

Samyon Taesa

Pu-gun (‘village tutelary deity’) [O Un-suk’s # 10]

Yon-gun Puin (‘dragon-king’s wife’)

C^>oe Yon C^an-gun [C^on Taebok’s # 7]

Kwan-son C^e-gun [O Un-suk’s # 6]

Hwadok C^an-gun (‘hound of the kitchen-furnace’)

Il-gwan Posal

Wol-gwan Posal


"Since the last two are the gods by whom she was possessed, the sun and the moon are rendered on the shoulders of the two figures." {cf. Bodish tutelary-deities reckoned as perched upon humans’ shoulders}

p. 247, n. 7 "The god that possesses the shaman[ess] during her initiation was a shaman is called momju ... and is believed to accompany her person at all times throughout her life."

pp. 241-242 how the man C^an Myon-hun became a shaman




"found himself prostrate on a sand dune after he had ascended to heaven during his initiation. Written on the sand were thirty letters which he interpreted as the embodiment of thirty gods.


... therefore enshrined the following thirty gods :" {actual count : 28}


according to C^an Myon-hun

p. 240 # acc. to C^on Tae-bok

p. 240 # acc. to C^an Myon-hun






Ok-hwan San-je




Sambul C^esok












C^>oe Il C^an-gun


Yi T>ae-jo Tae-wan










Pyol-san [O Un-suk’s # 8]


Tae-s^in Halmoni




Mul Haraboji (‘Grandfather Water’)


Yon-gun Puin [in Mun Tok-sun’s list]


Yaksa Posal


Sok Puc^>o (‘stone Buddha’)


Ton-ja Puc^>o (‘child Buddha’)


Pu-gun [in Mun Tok-sun’s list]






War-yon Son-saen


Pau S^in-ryon


C^>on-s^in Tae-gam [in Mun Tok-sun’s list]




Paekhangari Yon-wan Pulsa (‘God of Jars’)




Yon S^an-gun


Sokka Yorae (S`akya-muni)


Ansan Kut Umul Gunjaban Taewa (‘God of village well’)


Malmun S^in-jan (‘sacred voice’)


Aegi Ton-ja


"Of these, Chang’s momju is Sanshin."

p. 242 gods enshrined by shamaness Im Yon-rye

Im Yon-rye

p. 240 O Un-suk’s #

Man-myon (= Mal-myon) Halmoni

cf. 12



C^>oe Il C^an-gun



Juha Pentika:inen (ed.) : Shamanism and Northern Ecology. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 1996. pp. 221-247.