S^ahil (Xajil) Chronicle

pp. 3-5 progenitors of the tribes

p.

progenitors

tribe

3

Q>aq>awitz [/q>aq>/ ‘fire’ (p. 2, fn. 2) + /witz/ ‘hill’ (p. 2, fn. 2)] &

Saktekaw [/sak/ ‘locust, grasshopper’ (p. 2, fn. 3)]

S^ahil

 

K>atun [20-year cycle] & C^>uti Ah [c^>uti ‘small’ (fn. 8) + Ah /cane/] {cf. [<ibri^] Qayin ‘reed’}

Baka>hol

 

Tzanatl [tzanatl ‘sanate, boat-tailed grackle’ (Nahuatl) = c^ok (Kaqc^ikel)]

Q>eq>ak>u:c^

4

T>aki Ahaw [ttaquih (t>akih) ‘neck; to pummel’ (fn. 10)] &

C^>ahom Ahaw [/c^>a:h/ ‘wash’]

Sibaqihay

 

Totomay [/toto/ ‘bird’ (Nahuatl) + /may/ ‘tobacco/ (fn. 12)] &

S^urkah [/ka:h/ ‘powder, pigment’ (fn. 13)] {/s`arak/ ‘to interlace’ (Strong’s 8308)}

Kaweq

5

Loc^ [/strew (scil., flowers)/ (fn. 15)] &

S^et [s^et ‘mane’] {cf. [<ibri^] S^et}

Kehay

 

K>o S^ahil [/k>o/ ‘revered’ + /s^ah/ ‘dance’] &

K>o Baqil [/baq/ ‘bone’; /baq-il/ ‘bone of one’s body’]

{/baqbuq/ ‘bottle, cruse’ (Strong’s 1228)}

Paq [‘slime{-mold}’] Telom [‘shoulder’]

{the name /S^ahil/ ‘dance’ may refer to the dancing by Huitzil-opochti on the palm of the hand of Tezcatli-poca}

{the name /K>o Baqil/ may refer to the skeletal form of Huitzil-opochti}

pp. 8-9 progenitors of obsidian; the first people

p. 8

the C^ay Abah (/c^ay ‘obsidian’; /aba:h/ ‘stone’) is birthed by Ras^a (/ra:s^/ ‘green’) S^ibalbay and Q>ana (/q>an/ ‘yellow’) S^ibalbay

p. 9

the people were created into poqom (fn. 24 ‘spicy, hot, picante’) {cf. Tezcatli-poca as vendor of chile-peppers}

 

the 1st people "ate wood; they ate leaves; ...

They didn’t speak; they didn’t walk.

They had no blood, no flesh".

pp. 10-11 origin of horticulture

p.

horticulture

10

Utiw (Coyote) & Qoc^ (Crow) knew that food was in the hill Pam Pas^il [/pas^/ ‘to crumble, shatter’ (fn. 29)]

11

When Utiw was killed, ixim (maize) burst out from his arse. {implying that the Maize-god, swallowed by Coyote, killed him from within, and emerged}

 

Tiwtiw (Sparrowhawk) brought, from "inside the ocean", the blood of Tis^likumatz [/tis^li/ ‘tapir (modern ‘elephant’)’ (fn. 31) + /kuma:tz/ ‘snake, serpent’]

pp. 12-18 emergence of valuables and of the tribes from the earth’s interior, at Tulan

p.

emergence

12

There were 13 men & 14 women

13

"a bat was the covering of the entrance to this Tulan."

15

Along with the 7 amaq> there came forth from Tulan :

s^it (jade), pwa:q (gold),

q>uq>u-ras^on (quetzal-feather), k>ubul (trogon[-feather]), c^aktit (scarlet-feather),

writings, carvings, weavings,

16

s^ul (flute), bis^ (song),

c^>ol-q>ih (tzolkin), may-q>ih (‘count-day’),

peq (cacaopod), kakaow (cacao),

18

c^e>-aba:h (‘tree-stone’= stela)

21

[the items on pp. 15-16 are re-enumerated : omitting cacaopod/cacao, and with flute/ song at the end instead; and with other omissions]

23

Tlacaxipehualiztli festival

24

There came forth from Tulan the tribes :

Rabinal,

Sotz>il,

Tuquc^e>,

Tuhalahay,

Uc^abahay,

C^>umilahay,

Lamaq,

Kuma:tz,

Aqahal,

Tukur

pp. 33-34 the coming of the omen-birds {cf. the omen-birds of Borneo, etc.} at Tulan’s entrance

p.

omen-bird

33

C^hal-Siwan (‘ravine-guardian’ = Roadrunner)

Tukur (Owl)

34

K>anis^t (Sky-hawk = catarnica)

pp. 39-50 legend of primary migration

p.

migration

39

"the base of our standard was stabbed into the sand in the sea.

... the sea was split by the sand. ...

We crossed over on a path of sand.

42

Hills which were successive arrived at :

Teosakwanku [/teo/ ‘god’ (Nahuatl) + /tsaku/ ‘shut’ (Nahuatl) (fn. 96)],

Me>-ahaw (‘daughter lord’),

Walwal S^uks^uk [/wal/ ‘fan’ (fn. 97) + /s^uk/ ‘hook, harpoon’ (fn. 97)],

43

Tapku Oloman [/tlapku/ ‘enclosure’ (Nahuatl) + /oloman ‘wooded place’ (Nahuatl) (fn. 98)]

47

Arrival at Nonowalkat [in southern Veracruz (fn. 109)] & at S^ulpiti

48

Sailing in ships eastward from Nonowalkat to Suywa>

49

Were confronted at Suywa> with pe-ul (avalanche, landslide);

were fought against thereat by oc^oc^ (house), by ki-tzi> (hound), and by a:k> (turkey)

50

Retreated thence to Tapku Oloman

pp. 51-53 how the patronal deities of the tribes escaped alive from Suywa>

p.

tribe

site fled into by deity

patronal deity who thus fled

51

K>ec^e>

"sliding ... into the sky"

Toh-oh-il (‘thunder’)

51-2

Sotz>il

"in the beak of the Macaw"

Kaqis^ Kan [/kaqis^/ ‘macaw’ + /kan/ ‘remain’ (fn. 121)]

52

Kaqc^ikel

"descended into the earth"

C^i Taq>ah (/taq>ah/ ‘plain’)

   

"in the water"

Q>ukuma:tz

52-3

Tuq>uce>

"within an amaq>"

Ahsik Amaq> (‘above amaq>’)

53

Aqahal

"inside a wasp’s nest"

Aqa[ha]la-hay (‘wasp-nest house’)

pp. 54-57 hilltops (summits) & swamps traversed successively

p.

 

name

54

summit

Walwal S^uks^uk,

55

Meme> Huyu> (/meme>/ ‘mute’), Takna> Huyu> (/takna>/ ‘deaf’)

 

Saq-i-tew (/sa:q/ ‘white’ + /tew/ ‘cold’), Saq-i-k>uwa> (/k>uwa>/ ‘well’)

 

Me>-ahaw, Kuta>m C^ah (/kuta>m/ [‘trunk of tree’ (fn. 125)] + /c^a:h/ ‘pine’)

 

Saq-i-huyu>, Tepakuman

 

Toq>-oh-il (/to:q>/ ‘pierce’)

56

Pan-tzik (/tzik/ ‘droplet’)

57

Popo> Abah [/popo>/ ‘council’ (fn. 129)]

 

swamp

C^>op-itzel (/c^>op/ ‘pineapple’ + /itzel/ ‘bad’), Pa Nim-a-k>os^om (/nim/ ‘big’ + /k>os^om/ ‘shortcut’), S^e Nim-a-c^ah (/s^e/ ‘below’)

 

Muq-ul-i:k Ya> (/mu:q/ ‘submerge’ + /ya>/ ‘water’), Mol-om-i:k (/mo:l/ ‘amass’ + /c^>e/ ‘tree’)

pp. 57-58 Ko> S^ahil accompanied by Bakah

p. 57

Ko> S^ahil, K>o Baqil, was encountered at C^i Yol, C^i Abaq (/abaq/ ‘soot’).

 

As for Bakah, his ruha:leb:al ["animal pair or spirit pair into which someone can transform" (fn. 131)] {cf. nagual? (Nahuatl)} was lol (‘cicada’).

p. 58

The c^inami:tal-s were Telom and Kahibaq (‘Grindstone’). [less likely, /kahi>/ ‘four’ + /baq/ ‘bone’ (fn. 133)]

pp. 59-63 encounter with "Heart of the Hill" {= Tepe-yollotl} {cf. "hill-hearts" in Tlaloca`n}

p.

Heart of the Hill

59

"They measured their distances twice."

They passed between C^i Q>aq> [Volca`n Fuego (‘Volcano Fire’), overlooking Antigua (fn. 135)] and C^i Hunahpu> [Volca`n de Agua, likewise overlooking Antigua (fn. 135)].

 

There they encountered the ru-k>ux huyu> (‘Heart of Hill’) : Saqik>os^ol [/sa:q/ ‘white; first; pure’ + /k>os^/ ‘heartwood of tree; patella of knee’, /kos^ol/ ‘striker’ (fn. 136)] {" Moussa, nickamed sarkin gauawa ("the king of haste") because "he is the fastest of them all," is the first to throw lightning." (PHSE, p. 272)}

62

Saqik>os^ol gave up what he was wearing : a wig, "breastplate of blood" (s^ahpota kik>) [possibly "the skin of a sacrificial victim" (fn. 139)], "sandals of blood" (s^ahabi> kik>).

63

They heard "the creaking in the forest" at C^>itabal [/c^>i/ ‘disquiet, unquiet’ + /ta-ba:l/ ‘not in’ or /tah/ ‘pine-tree’]

PHSE = Adeline Masquelier : Prayer Has Spoiled Everything. Duke U Pr, Durham (NC), 2001.

p. 64 hills & swamps which were traversed successively

hill

Beleh C^i Q>aq> (/beleh/ ‘9’ + /q>aq>/ ‘fire’)

Beleh C^i Hunahpu>

S^e-suh (/s^e/ ‘below’ + /suh/ [a species of tree (fn. 145)])

S^e-tokoy (/tok/ ‘deaf’)

S^e-uh [/uh/ ‘moon’ (fn. 144)]

S^e Amatal [/amat-/ ‘paper’ (Nahuatl) (fn. 146)]

C^i Tz>unun C^oy (/tz>unun/ ‘hummingbird’ + /c^oy/ ‘lake’) {cf. lake Tzintzuntzan ‘Hummingbird’ in Michoaca`n}

S^e Kuku> Huyu> (/kuku>/ ‘jug’)

S^iliwistan [/s^ili/ ‘leaf’ (Nahuatl) + /huitz-tlan/ ‘thorn-place’ (Nahuatl) (fn. 147)]

Sanpanku [/tzum/ ‘skull’ + /pan/ ‘in’ + /co/ ‘at’ (Nahuatl) (fn. 147) = Sumpango]

Tekpalan [/tecpal/ ‘throne’ + /tlan/ (Nahuatl) (fn. 147) = Tecpan]

Tepustan [/tepoz/ ‘metal’ + /tlan/ (Nahuatl) (fn. 147)]

swamp

C^>ol Amaq>

Sukitan [/suki/ ‘mud/ + /tlan/ (Nahuatl) (fn. 149)]

pp. 65-66 learning of foreign dialects

p. 65

From the animals Los^pin (‘Oriole’) and C^>upic^in the C^>ol language was learned.

 

Re-arrival at tops of the hills Meme> Huyu> (‘Mute Hill’) and Takna> {cf. Tacna in Peru`} Huyu> (‘Deaf Hill’), "their second measuring."

p. 66

"We joked familiarly" [in the C^>ol language?].

p. 67 hills passed "through" (/nik>ah/, literally ‘half’) {via tunnels, if not by actually splitting each mountain asunder – cf. the splitting asunder of the Mt.-of-Olives}

Subinal

C^akac^il (/c^aka:c^/ ‘basket’) Tz>ul-ahaw (/tz>ul/ ‘cloak’ + /ahaw/ ‘lord’) S^-bakah

Nims^or

Moynal

Karc^ah

pp. 67-69 lords & their retinues

p. 67

"They passed by the places of" Walil [/wal/ ‘fan’ (fn. 158)] K>ahol [‘vassal’ (fn. 158)] and of Tz>unun (‘hummingbird’) K>ahol.

 

They went Mewak {cf. MiWoK (tribe in California)} Nak-s^it (‘fool-jade’ {greenstone?}’), who was "a great lord."

p. 68

He had invested with ahpop k>amahay {scil., with vassalship} a heralded noseplug-wearer, Tisinpwal Tas^uc^ [= Cenpowal-te S^oc^itl (in Nahuatl) /sen-powal/ ‘twenty’ (literally, ‘one-count’) + /s^oc^itl/ ‘flowers’ (fn. 160)].

p. 69

"they set up the lintel-stone" for the investiture {of Tisinpwal Tas^uc^}.

 

Those of Nimpoqom (/ni:m/ ‘big’ + /poqom/ ‘suffering’) and those of Ras^c^>ic^> (/ra:s^/ ‘green’ + /c^>ic^>/ ‘metal’) were encountered at the hill Saqtzuy (/sa:q/ ‘white’ + /tzuy/ ‘gourd’).

pp. 70-73 animal-impersonating dancers; animal-deities

p. 70

"Dances were being done :"

S^man Keh (‘doe-deer’),

S^man Tz>ikin (‘female bird’),

with s^uk> (‘lasso’) and tzara> (‘snare’).

 

To view them was sent Saqbim (‘Weasel’)

p. 71

together with K>o S^ahil, K>o Baqil, whose transform is a Cicada.

p. 73

There were encountered Loc^ & X^et [some species of "monkey" (fn. 171)].

Judith M. Maxwell & Robert H. Hill II : Kaqchikel Chronicles. U of TX Pr, Austin, 2006.