Hatti & environs

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H^uzziya (cf. modern city-name Ah^waz, capital of province H^uz-istan) the king of Zalpuwa kingdom on the Pontos Eu-xinos. {Ah^waz in the main religious centre for the Manda< (Gnostic) religion; so that perhaps the Gnostic religion originated in Zalpuwa (eastern Paphlagonia). Sinope (Sinapa) on central-coast Paphlagonia was place of origin of the Kynic philosophy, which is similar to Gnostic religion (both eating lentils as a communal meal).}

"Ḫupišna (Cl. Cybistra, T. Ereğli), Tuwanuwa (Cl. Tyana, T. Bor), Nenašša, Landa, Zallara, Paršuḫanta (Purušḫanda), and Lušna (Cl. Lystra)". {Lusna is cognate with Ligustican city-name Losna (Luna in Latin) of the moon-crescent-marked cheeses.}

Seige of Ursu {cf. /R.Si/ 'a sage' of Bharata}

The city H^assu was allied with the Umman-Manda. {origin of the country-name <oman and of the religion-name Manda<?}

"a queen of the city of Kaniš who gave birth to thirty sons in one year. ...

Ya<ur "had thirty sons that rode on thiry ass colts" (S^apat.i^m 10:4).

When the sons grew up, they went to Zalpa driving a donkey before them.

"As for thine asses ... they are found." (1st S^mu^->el 9:20)

When they reached the city of Tamarmara,

{cf. name /TEAMHAIR/ of the capital of Eire}

they proposed to do something remarkable wherein their donkey would mount a she-donkey."

{Contrast the as`va-medha caerimony (based a hindring a stallion from mounting a mare) of a cakra-vartin}

From "the city of Ziggaratta where she found the mortal man Ḫupašiya", he (though forbidden to do so) looked out of the window and saw his wife a children, and thereupon sought permission from goddess Inara to return to them from her company. {The name INARos (who is "foster-brother" of the high-priest of PTaH. -- K. S. B. Ryholt : The Story of Petese, Son of Petetum and Seventy Other Good and Bad Stories, p. 84. http://books.google.com/books?id=w_Qc8NC3l-MC&pg=PR84&lpg=PR84&dq= ) also occurs in a myth of the ghost of a dead prince's requesting in his tomb for his own dead wife and dead children to be brought to him. ("The Book of Magic", in Fergus Fleming & Alan Lothian : Ancient Egypt's Myths and Beliefs, p. 111. http://books.google.com/books?id=0H3v0nPk1V4C&pg=PA111&lpg=PA111&dq= )} {This is also similar to a theme in various AmerIndian myths of a person having gone to the skyworld, looking through (though forbidden to do so) a window in the skyworld, seeing the mortal people below and seeking to return to them. The closest Hellenic aequivalent would be Odusseus's seeking and obtaining permission from goddess Kalupso to return to the mortal world by raft, a theme matched in the Irish myth a similar return by ship from the Otherworld.} {The name Ziggaratta is evidently intended as the Sumerian word /ziggurat/.}

("Information about theHittites - Hittite History" : "Early Empire", p. 3, with map http://archive.today/SZYwu Hittites.info)

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p. 59 The city-name later written in Nesite as Purus-handa is in Old Akkadian "written URU.Bur-sˇa-h˘a-an-da." It is the "Burusˇh˘attum referred to in the Cappadocian tablets". {These phonetics could suggest the hero-names BHURi-dyumna and BHURi-s`ravas mentioned in the Puran.a-s.}

p. 60 "E. Forrer’s earlier identifications of H˘upisˇna, Tuwanuwa and Ninasˇa with Classical Cybistra, Tyana and Nanassos respectively, thus he argued that they go from west to east. For the second group, Landa, Zalara, Purusˇh˘anta and Lusˇna, Hardy

also accepted Forrer’s identification of Landa with Classical Laranda and Lusˇna with Classical Lystra, hence he argued that they run possibly from east to west, and identified the location of Purusˇh˘anta together with Zalara between Landa (= Classical Laranda) and Lusˇna (= Classical Lystra)."

p. 61, fn. 5 "the variant of Cappadocian Ulama is Ulma and Walama, and Ulama corresponds to the Hittite Ullamma. For Walama, one can phonetically compare with the place name Walma".

p. 62 "Ikuwaniya (= Konya)"

p. 71 "according to J. Lewy, Classical Sabatra/Savatra/Soatra is more preferably equated with the Hittite Sˇuwatara"; "F. Cornelius equated Sˇalatu/iwar with Classical Sadakora ..., but according to W.M. Ramsay, Classical Sadakora is mentioned by Strabo as on the road between Classical Soanda (about modern Nevs,ehir) and Caesarea (= modern Kayseri)."

p. 72, fn. 17 "A.T. Olmstead equated Landa with Classical place names based on W.M. Ramsay’s earlier proposal to equate Ptolemy’s Classical Leandis in Cataonia with Laranda of the Antonine Itinerary. Concerning the localization of Classical Leandis/Laranda, Ramsay reported that Laranda was still called Laranda by the Christian population as well as Karaman".

p. 78 "the modern village of Sinantı, which had already been identified by Forrer with Sˇinuwanta. ... Sˇaliya was equated by Goetze with modern Pozantı in the Cilician Gates." {With Saliya cf. Sali-hotra in the Puran.a-s.}

p. 80 "Zincirli can be identified with Usˇa." {Cf. heroine Us.a in the Puran.a-s.}

p. 82 "J. Freu also suggested a location of the River H˘ulana to the west of the Halys River, and specifically identified it with the Classical Sangarios River".

p. 84 "A. Götze and E. Forrer only briefly mentioned the identification of Hittite Tawiniya. They stated that Tawiniya is the name of a gate at Bog˘azköy-H˘attusˇa ... . Thus, they suggested identifying it with the nearest city to Bog˘azköy-H˘attusˇa, identifying it with Classical Tonea located to the north of Bog˘azköy-H˘attusˇa".

(Naohiko Kawakami : "The Location of Purusˇh˘anta". AL-RAFIDAN Vol. XXVII (2006), pp. 59-99. https://kiss.kokushikan.ac.jp/pages/contents/0/data/003077/0000/registFile/0285_4406_027_03.pdf )


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Luwian war-god "Sanda"; and Luwian "markuwa" ("marwa" in Arzawa) 'dark' heptad of deities (Alfonso Archi : "The Heptad in Anatolia". HETHITICA XVI (2010). http://www.academia.edu/7003571/The_Heptad_in_Anatolia ) : cf. Sanda and Marka in the Puran.a-s.

Nesite war-god Iyarri's name may be cognate with S^emitic month-name >IYYAR, derived from yarah 'archer; to shoot'. Iyarri is also aequated with Akkadian god Erra (arrow-shooting god of the plague); likened to arrow-shooting plague-god Apollon.

There is a cart/wagon (MAR.GI'D.DA, Akkadian ereqqu = Ursa major) of weather-god Tessub who likely = Sisuphos (< */TikS-UBHo-/ = Skt /tik.s-/ 'sharp' + Danish UBBe (name of a mythic archer in Saxo Grammaticus; progentor of UBii tribe on the Rhenus/Rhine river). Skt Su-maha-TIK.Sna is a god in one of the Naraka-s (according to the Puran.a-s); while >ob is in <ibri 'communication with the dead'. Akkadian /ereqqu/ = <ibri /<araq/ 'sinew'.

In the deity-sequence 46 : dHasammeli - dHilassi - dU.GUR - dZuliya : Hasammeli may = At.t.a-HASA 'boistrous laughter' in the Puran.a-s; Hilassi may be of hilarity; and U.GUR may = god UGRa of the linga in the Puran.a-s.

In the deity-sequence 47 : dAskasepa - dMUNUS.LUGAL - dPirwa - dMaliyas - dLAMMA-as : dAska-sepa may = [Pauran.ik Suna-SEPHAs the imprisoned =] ASKAlaphos who was imprisoned (GM 24.l); dMUNUS.LUGAL 'Woman-King' may = Haides carrying off Kore (GM 24.c); dPirwa may = PeIRithoos who was imprisoned (GM 103.c) as was afterwards discovered when Askalaphos was released (GM 134.d); dMaliyas may = heroine MALIs mother of founder of dynasty in Ludia (GM 136.g); and dLAMMA-as may = LAMos (GM 136.g), who is namesake of (DCM, s.v. "Lamia") the town Lamia : "The original Lamía was founded in the 5th century bce as the centre of the tribes of Malis" (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/328707/Lamia ). Lamos is also known as Lamon (DCM, s.v. "Omphale") ancestor of the Swedish Lamanites celebrated in Mormon ('Frightening' in Hellenic; cf. Nesite hatuka 'terrifying', as applied to the Heptad) literature.

The Heptad are deities of 59-63 : the mt Piskurunuwa (= Skt PICCHila 'slippery'), mt Tapala {= Kappadokian province TABAL-ene of Tubal-qayin?}, and mt Daha = Pauran.ik god DAHAna = Zaratustrian god Az^i-DAHAka, out of whose shoulders grow snakes (according to the Zend-Awesta), just as snakes grow out of the shoulders of god Tuphoeus (according to Hesiodos).

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