Gawai Buron (festival of birds) of the Iban of Borneo

f. = father of; s. = son of; d. = daughter of; h. = husband of

omen birds (7 h.s of 7 d.s Sinalan Buron) -- p. 3

#

name

English

scientific

alarm-cry

1

Ketupon

rufous picolet

Sasia abnormis

jaloh (/ kikeh)

2

Bejampon

crested jay

Platylophus galericulatus


3

Beragai

scarlet-rumped trogon

Harpactes duvauceli


4

Embuas

banded kingfisher

Lacedo pulchella


5

Pankas

maroon woodpecker

Blythipicus rubiginosus

kutok

6

Papau

Diard's trogon

Harpactes diardi

kalabu (/ senabon)

7

Buron Malam / Kundin

"bird of night" (viz., cricket)



8

Nendak

white-rumped shama

Copsychus malabaricus


animals, with their activities (pp. 22-23, 48-49: 2 identical lists)

animal

its activity

rufous picolet (jaloh)

shrieketh

turtle

swimmeth against current

striped wildcat

catcher of buff-colored bird

cobra

sweepeth-away debris

python

reposeth on kempas tree

padi charms to keep from being forgetful -- p. 62

deer's antler

boar's tusk

cobweb on melai grass

operculum of tekuyon shell

journey of war-party

page

country of __ t[ree], c[reeper] {Maya day-names}

deity-name

page: note

meaning of name

79


Lembut

190:41

sulphur


flint {cf. Maya 18th Ets>nab "flint'}

Kerin

:41

steel

80

jetulon t.

Kerutu f. Tuc^ok

191:42

long-haired caterpillar {cf. "little caterpillar", AHM 10:67} (on rubber-tree), f. tree-lizard

81

the bow of a boat

Galah (/ Juban), f. Sandah

:43

crickets

82

kerupok palm-t.

Rioh

:44

larger cricket

83

waterfall {Maya 19th Cawac "rain"}

Sibal Ibal f. Tankal Putin Pemangai & Nendak


(nendak =) white-rumped shama

84

ubah t.; red palah reed

Beragai f. C^elegai Rarik Lampon (/ Samatai)



85

gamban (sambar) deer

Jimbun Bulan




luop (invisibility for boat); sebanki api (speed for boat)

Kac^endai Buna Rinkai f. Kelabu

:47


86

"jew's harp"

Lac^au Kurin


[fiery-eyed starer] {cf. "staring eyes", AHM 10:67}


raras t.; seligi (wooden spear)

Pankas (/ Kutok)

:48


87

rarak & danan (c.s)

Bejampon



88

randau malam (c.)

Embuas (/ Embuau)



89

flute; temian bamboo

Ketupon



90

sengan & lemba (palm-t.s)

Buron Malam


[black-teethed]


merunjau t.

Bujan Kesui (/ Sakundin Mupon)



91

banana; tebu tenan sugar-cane

Riton

:50

basket for collecting honey

93

blowgun {Maya 20th Ah-pu "blowgun-blower"}

Enkerasak


[slave]

94

noose

Nisin (/ Beduru)

:51


arrival of war-party led by Enkerasak

warrior (p. 95)

is stationed at __

Kunc^it

house-ladder

Ketupon

house-floor

Kundin

chicken-roost

dreams by prospective vicims

dream (p. 99)

foreboding __ (p. 100)

blown by strong wind

enemies will come

fallen-upon by raindrops

will be shot

swarmed-upon by bees

sparks from:

fallen-upon by tapan tree-trunk

[clashing] swords

bitten by ular bunai snakes

spears

dreams by prospective head-takers


dreamer

1st dream

2nd dream

(p. 104)

Sinalan

surprised by bear

chased by tiger

(p. 106)

Ketupon

stars fall

coconuts are reaped

(p. 107)

Beragai

stars fall

coconuts are reaped

animals with their characteristics, mentioned to Nisin by guests


animal

its characteristic

p. 111

deer

antlers


boar

tusks

p. 112

enkelulut (bees)

antennae


mouse-deer



buntak (locust)

saliva


kaak (raven)

urine

patterns; materials



pattern/design

p. 114

"jaw of an adulterous crocodile"

pattern in blanket

p. 115

rambai fern

pattern in woman's blouse

p. 126

" fox's tongue"

design carven on shield

p. 137

"tongue of the kendawang snake"

pattern on sword-belt






material/substance

p. 116

"buttress roots of the mikai tree"

door


enseluai rattan

lashing-strings for floor-planks


medan luai wood

house-posts


popped rice (letup, p. 17)

offerings to trophy-head {= cremation causing skulls to explode ?}

husband-wife couples


husband

wife

p. 117

Ketupon = Jaloh

Endu Dara Tinc^in Temaga = Endu C^erebok Mankok C^ina


Beragai Rengan Mudai = C^ellegai Rarik Lampon

Endu Kec^apah Dulan Landai = Kuman Buna Entekai

p. 118

Embuas = Embuai = Tipas Sibui Jabon

Endu Kec^pan Dulan Mas = Iyak Ketupan Buna Libas


Kelabu Lac^au Buntu Papau Nyenabon

Endu Moa Puc^on Penabas = Pingai Besai Nadai Meretas


Buron Malam = Kesui Sakundin Mupon

Endu Dara C^empaka Tempuron Alan = Patri Lanit Dayan Kuman


Aki Lan Sinalan Buron = Aki Lai

Endu Dara Sentaba Balun Kupak = Indai Kac^endai Bepantak Jerak

bathing-places -- p. 119

at bathing-place of __

are __

Sinalan

enkalat bamboos used as tubes for drawing water

+Kuman

pangil trees, revealing "that she would marry many times."

Kelin

mudin palms used for spear-shafts

quarrels with father-in-laws, resulting in household-moves -- p. 120

son-in-law

father-in-law

object of dispute

Kelin

f. Rumban

tusk of tenilin (aardvark)

Laja

f. Ansan Renaya

a diamond

bamboos which must not be walked under -- p. 123

bamboo-species

must not be walked-under, lest __

kirai

"we may die."

lalan

"by the batchelors, Lest they never marry."

feats of Aji, the brother of +Endu Dara Tinc^in Temaga

his feat

his means of acomplishing it

(p. 123) retaineth "the key to the door of the heavens."

walketh around (upon?) the clouds

(p. 125) "was hung by the people from the top of a tapang tree, With a thin string of senggang palm, for one month" {this an ordeal for a Daoist shaman's apprentice}

"bee's nest charm."

paddled "up a waterfall of seven steps"

"a stone to weaken the water."

# of persons massacred [reckoned downward from 210, by 20s]-- p. 126

#

massacred by __

190

Ketupon

170

Beragai

150

Geliga Tandan

{210 is # of days in Balinese ritual year; 20-day ritual month of Kogi & of Meso-Americans}

ladder climbed, after opening "the door of the clouds"

living animal

is used as __

(p. 126) python

ladder

(p. 127) striped nabau snake

handrails (bannisters) of the ladder

countries (white/bright) in heaven, along route of expedition -- pp. 127-140

page

[#]

denizen

characteristics

p. 127

1.

Aki Unkok

braiding his hair [in moon, p. 191]


2.

jantok jelai (cane)

its shoots raise the tankai miga (stone)


3.

Nelai [& Punga, p. 128]

red fighting cocks on Balai Nyabon (hill)

p. 128

4.

Bujan Simban Gemuran, son of Semarugah ("porcupine", p. 191)

who owneth "an egg of the earth, The first which became the site of a town."


5.

"Chinese"

kawa (stimulant)-plant {known in Fiji}

p. 129

6.

Suluk

boatwrights


7.

long-backed spirit

planks


8.

short spirit, sitting

who becometh sky-tall when standing


9.

Apai Suman Uman

who exchanged houses with Apai Alui [Kelin's mother's brother, p. 191] [trade of insect-riddled house for a sturdy one, p. 7{: cf. Gurage folk-tale of rabbit & lion}]

p. 130

10.

Kelin

charm which enableth "one to be perfect in throwing a spear"


11.

Siba Iba the richest of the rich [distributor of "the Job's tears, ... For the food of those who are sick." p. 131]

his hair is cut in stripes, his back like pedalai fruit; is well in morning, ill in evening ["is charged with caring for the center of things, and consequently may never go anywhere." p. 191 { -- cf. S^into deity Ame-no-minaka-nusi "master of the august center of heaven"}]

p. 131

12.

+Raya (bird) ["the Storm's Stork, sends offerings ... to the heavens." p. 191] & +Rindan (bird)

+Raya is elder sister of Undan; +Rindan is "elder sister of a batchelor who sends his message."

p. 132

13.

Rengan

carver of sandon ritual pole


14.

Sera Gindi

maker of rhinoceros-hornbill statue


15.

Benkon f. Kuan Kapon (Indian cuckoo, p. 191); also, Bujan Tanga Riran

B.T.R. baileth water from the lake


16.

"blades of swords" (machetes) which "forever cut" making "a cleared space"

{cf. Bon mythic implements which work by themselves -- is the "cleared space" the lucus "clearing in forest" of the Etruscan lucumon, or the Kore "void" of the Maori cosmogony?}


17.

"nests of snakes"

"hill which has been tossed by thunder", whence blowguns "have rolled down"

p. 133

18.

"a swinging stone"

"sprinkled by the yellow rice"


19.

python

"which can laugh and show its teeth"


20.

Bujan Pareh [as Bunsu Petara's emissary, he "often attends mankind's festivals", p.192]

[a "statue, with red teeth, is placed at a road junction to frighten bad spirits." p. 191]

p. 134

21.

Selampandai/Selampetoh

is blacksmith, using charcoal of belian wood


22.

Renayon the barking deer

kubok & resam (ferns)

p. 135

23.

Bunji

"old sambar deer" {cf. Kartwellian antient deer}


24.

Mac^au the tiger

c^andi stone in whirlwind

p. 136

25.

"aborted foetuses"

"Where the seventy roads meet."

p. 137

26.

Kanyon & Ugau

"lonely forest"

p. 138

27.

Aki Dunju (of cobra-guarded knife) & Aki Lankau (of striped-nabau-snake-guarded jar)

kemuntin uman trees; lalan benan grass {cf. Bodish snake-engraven knife phurbu; Laotian mythic snake in begging-bowl}


28.

Duron (/ Sukon Lamba Jingau) (s. Simpulan Gana)

"His wife is Endu Lilih Sinton Benih Pulut Belanian, Who speaks loudly, claiming she will marry the three starts."

p. 139

29.

Bunsu Petara ["Should his attention waver, chaos" to ensue, p. 192]

"His wife is Endu Sudan, Also known as Sebamban Balut Sireh, She is Endu Iyak who weeps with kindness."

p. 140

30.

+Nelinkon [boat, p. 192] / +Endu Dara Bajik "Whose back is bent."

{Cf. Daoist hunchbacked goddess (in book of Z^uan Z^ou), whence hunchbacked Tantrik goddess +Cundri = hunchbacked +Kundrie of the Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach}

p. 192, n. 70 "from this [on p. 136] junction [of 70 roads], the path to the longhouse of mankind is the same in all chants."

thence (from the junction), 3 roads -- p. 137

road of __

is marked by bent __ trees

Kelin

kemuntin

Laja


Tuton

enkubon

troughs wherein souls are dipped {cf. baptism} "(as iron is tempered)" by blacksmith -- p. 134

into wooden __ trench

are dipped [souls of] __

kedemba

liars

tempurok

the lazy

teras

the diligent

"iron"

the brave

mikai

the clever

gripped while bathing

bather

the gripped

(p. 141) Sinalan

gemian & adon (fishes), kuai (stone) & semah (fish)

(p. 142) Sinalan's wife Indai Kac^endai

bankit tree-fruit

owners of verandahs found by Sinalan -- p. 148

owner

character

barking pasun

is daemon's hound

porcupine

"Whose necklace is a chain."

tajai [helmeted hornbill |Rhinoplax vigil), p. 192]

"could fly to Brunei and back in a day."

praise-names -- pp. 150-151

speaker

his praise-name

Sinalan

"Earth Tremor which shakes the land, And causes the full moon to fall down." {cf. earth-shaker Poseidon/Potidan : idus/eidus "full moon" (Latin)}

Ketupon

Sankoh Agon "hairy spear"

Beragai

Perapan Pedan Panjai "long sword"

Embuas

Bankon Deras (a swift bird)

Kutok

Apu Mau (longhouse on fire)

Kelin

Ipoh Kinyin, (p. 151) having killed macaques

(p. 151) Laja

Laja' Pemuna, a dart shot toward sky, striking "the Terdani star to make it fall down."

Simpurai

Perapan Pedan Panjai "long sword" [same as for Beragai]

Tuton

Putan Tujoh "Which smelts the kemuja steel."

Nelai

Buna Buot "A flower ... rubbed on the skin of those who collapsed"

charms (amulets) brought by animal-bards -- pp. 165-167

animal

charm

son of Empeliau the tarsier bard

tusk of boar

(p. 165) squirrel

pretious stone; praeserved ginger

snail

cobweb plucked from melai grass

son of Tupai the bard

coins

son of Tanga Lulai the bard

tinc^in bekawai ring; gelan alai bangle

forging (blackmithery) -- p. 167

work

worker[s]

forgery-chiefs

Mangan "an evil-hearted batchelor" & Antu Inu Setuak Tuwi a daemon

blow the bellows

Mingan from the moonlight & Mingat from the yellow lightning

temper the metal

Baketan Tungai "Whose back is seven finger spans wide."

smithy constructed out of human body-parts -- p. 168

smithy-part

human body-part

bellows

upper Kayan folk

furnace

antient skull

piston of bellows

gray hair

pipe for blowing fire

throat of Kejaman

tongs

hand

anvil

thigh

hammer

elbow

trough

corpse's belly

water

blood of Punan child

charcoal

eyeballs of Baketan children

metaphors of smithy operated by Girau-Gerawan the tall daemon with teeth -- pp. 169-170

fuel

dried mushrooms

sound of fire

noise made by pama frogs

sound of bellows

chattering of memadi (parrot)

red-hot iron

shell of cooked crab

(p. 170) expanding steel

growth of flower

bilai steel

sparks

andon steel

adon fish

tapping with hammer

woodpecker's pecking-clatter

spirits taken as omens -- p. 172

spirit

its omen

sabut spirit

fainteth a dawn

"a spirit"

weepeth loudly

Belan Pingan

"whose forehead is uneven"

the tall daemon

"Whose teeth are sparse."

animal-people struck down by Bujan Pedan -- pp. 172-173

animal

when slain is revealed as human

female pheasant

"Which wears earrings."

(p. 173) a bear

Kayan child "tattoed with a bangle pattern."

puan monkey {cf. Sufi belief of evolution of humans from monkeys}

"its ribs are broken and dangling" {cf. extraction of rib from >adam}

lumber-industry similes -- pp. 174-175

felled trees have cast off all their bark

"Like the young damsels, Who sleep soundly and naked."

(p. 175) burnt leaves

like unto iton sparrows

ashes

like unto fat of swine

stumps

like unto heads of rason monkeys

sending-back of sons of lemamban (bards) -- pp. 177-178

lemamban __

returneth to __

which __

s. Nendak

foot of kemantan tambak tree

"is shaken by the waves."

s. Luon

knot of tebelian tree

resoundeth "like a drum when beaten."

(p. 178) "squirrel bards"

flowers of lensat tree





"we

perch on the bridge of Bunsu Selampadai"

{cf. bridge of Heimdall}

Benedict Sandin: Gawai Burong. Penerbit U., Pinang, 1977.

AHM = John White: The Ancient History of the Maori. U. of Waikato, Hamilton (NZ), 2001.