Fragments of Lappish Mythology, Part 1






Doctrine of Deities






1. (pp. 71-136) "Doctrine of Deities"

1:4, 6-8 (pp. 73-5) the Radien category of deities






"The gods high above include Radien Atzhie who was the highest and greatest of all gods. He is described as standing with a simple cross above Radien Kiedde ... .

... Radien Atzhie ... they gave ... the name Radien, which means ‘might’ and ‘power’, and further added the word Atzhie, which denotes ‘source’ or ‘origin’."



"The word and deity, however, turn out to be Lappish if derived from the Lappish word radje or raje, which denotes ‘border,[’] ‘terminus’. In that case Radien Attje would mean ‘Border Father’." {There was, of course, likewise a Latin god named /Terminus/.}



L "states that "some Lapps differentiated between Radien and Zhioaarve Radien, according to which the latter would be subordinate to the former. ...["] ... Zhioaarve, according to Lindahl and O:hrling’s spelling tjaorwe, actually means ‘horn,’ ‘cornu’; it is a metonym for ... the expression ‘best of its kind’."



"Radien Kiedde ... was said to be a son of Radien Attje. He was presented as an edifice whose two rows of pillars on each side represented his two hands ... . So sacred was Radien Attje ... that ... his only son, Radien Kiedde was obligated to revere and honor him as something sacred. Radien Attje ...



worked through his son with such power that the latter creates everything. ... Radien Attje was even believed to rule over Radien Kiedde, and through him made everything happen." (J p. 11)


"Kiedde means ‘meadow’ or ‘grass growing heath,’ where the Lapps usually put up their tents and milk their reindeer. ... The fact that Radien Kiedde was represented ... in the form of an edifice, would seem to indicate that Radien Kiedde was seen as a dwelling for Radien Attje".

1:9-10 (pp. 75-7) other /Ra-/ deities






"Sidenius mentions two additional deities with similar names, Radier and Rariet. ... "Radier resides uppermost in the sky somewhat below Rariet, whose function it is to send down the soul to the human embryo in the mother’s womb.["] (Sidenius, according to Ganander)



"Next in rank after Radien," saith L, "is Ruonaneid. ... She makes new grass grow as food for the reindeer...." "Sidenius (according to Ganander) ... writes it Rananeid". {Is /RANA/ cognate with Strong’s 7488 /RA<NAn/ ‘verdant, green’; or, with /ReiNdeer/?} J "mentions that Rana Neid was the Flora of the Lapps which produced grass ... on earth. ...



Neid denotes ‘maiden’ ".

1:11 (p. 77) other deities

"The second class of gods or deities of the sky include Beiwe and Ailekis Olmak. Beiwe, ‘the sun’, is represented by the quadrangle ... . {Is this quadrangle a variation of the Chinese square character repraesenting word ‘sun’?} From each angle of the quadrangle runs a line called Beiwe labtje (the sun’s reins ...). There were four of these reins and they signify the sun’s power of affecting all four directions of the wind." (J)

"The gods which reside lower down in the air include the Sun, Peiwe. {Is /PEiwe/ cognate with Strong’s 6285 /PE>ah/ ‘corner’ (in view of the 4 corners of the rectangle)?} White creatures were ... in order that she may shine well." (L)

"the Sun is rumored to promote white creatures." (Sidenius, according to Ganander)

1:12 (p. 78) clockwise & countre-clockwise

"much attention is given to what is or happens with the sun (clockwise) or against the sun (counter-clockwise)".

{Ritual circumambulation is clockwise in Bauddha practice; but countre-clockwise in Bon practice.}

" "clockwise" and "counter-clockwise"

in Finnish are myo:ta:pa:iva:a:n and vastapa:iva:a:n and

in Swedish medsols and motsols, respectively."

1:13 (pp. 78-9) days sacred to specific deities

p. 78

"Three of the Lappish Ailekis Olmak deities, i.e., ‘Sacred Days’ men stand on the Sun’s afore-mentioned Labtjeh (reins ...). Because of their sacredness, these men were marked with a cross."


on the __ rein

standeth deity __



Burres or Sodna-peiwe-ailek








"On Friday and Saturday cutting wood for fuel was prohibited" (J). {Collecting of wood for fuel is forbidden on the S^abbat.}

p. 79

"If a Lapp worked on these days in any fashion it had to be atoned".

1:14 (p. 79) aile-

"there exist in the language such words as ailes, aileg, and ailestattet, etc., which refer to ‘something sacred’, ‘reserved for the gods’, ‘what was not to be divided into parts ..., but was to be kept whole ...[’]".

1:16-8 (pp. 80-2) Madder-Attje & Madder-Akka






"Madder-Attje’s sign ... is some times a little circle, some times a triangle, occasionally even a hexagon. {These signs are likely to have symbolized different deities.} ... According to Lappish noaides, Madder-Attje ... derives his power from Radien-Kiedde." (J)



"Madder-Attje means ‘first father ...’ ...

Madder-Akka ..., being a woman, ... did not have any sons, only three daughters : Zarakka, Uksakka and Juksakka."



"From the fourth and lowest rein ... runs a straight line to Madder-Akka who is Madder Attje’s spouse. This Madder-Akka’s dwelling is in mid-air."



"the evil gods, Fudno, Rutu, Paha Engel or Mudden Olmai, were unable to obstruct".

1:19 (p. 82) journey of the soul

"evil spirits and forces constantly persecute and try to harm human beings, and this is the case even before the fetus is ready to be born. Judging from the many round-about ways the newly created soul had to travel, and through how many beings, before it reached the birthmother, the noaides probably thought that evil spirits have a fine sense of smell. ... That is ... the origin of the strange soul’s journey in question."

1:20-5, 27 (pp. 82-4, 86) various goddesses






"Radien Attje had a wife by the name Sergve-Edne (more correctly Sierg-Edne) whom he had given the power to create souls. She would bring them immediately to Madder-Akka, who was to create a body onto the soul. Otherwise all breeding of animals was left to Madder-Zar-Uks och Juks Akka." (J p. 15)


"Sierg-Siedga or Sa:dga actually means ‘willow (Salix)’, edne means ‘mother’."



"Madder-Akka’s first daughter Zarakka ... has to suffer pain herself alongside the mother who gives birth to the child. For this reason ..., some Lapps ... ate and drank the body ad blood of Zarakka as ... the holy sacrament. Woman, particularly pregnant ones, worship this Zarakka most diligently. ...

Madder-Akka’s other daughter’s name was Juks-Akka who could transform a daughter into a son in the mother’s womb. {a common belief in India} ...

Madder-Akka’s third daughter was Uksakka. She is considered a midwife; she receive the child at birth and protects it from misfortune. She also helps women during menstruation." (L)



"the name Juks- or perhaps Juoks-Akka means that she had something to do with



bows and hunting tools. It was presumably this goddess of hunting who "transformed a daughter into a son in the mother’s womb.""



"Uks-Akka means ‘door wife’, ‘door woman’, ... a kind of female Janus who was believed to dwell in the vicinity of the door. ... Since the women’s place in the Lapp kota (‘hut’) is by the door where they must also give birth to their children, it is natural that Uks-Akka should act as midwife."



"juks means ‘the straps with which the Lapps fasten their skis to their feet’." {cf. the Kemetic sandal-strap hieroglyph /<nh^/ ‘life’; and the skis of Norse goddess Skadi.}



"Ho,gstro,m ... talks about a Viros-Akka, called Viran Akka by Tornaeus, the meaning of which is said to be ‘the Livonians’ Old Woman.’ It is true, that virolainen in Finnish means Livonian".

"Ganander ... mentions a Viran kannos, who promoted the growth of oates."

1:25, 29-31 (pp. 85, 87-8) goddess Sarakka






"Sarakkan edne nuolei ... i.e., Mother Sarakka ... lingebat, ‘licked’ ... . Nuolei is in reality the past tense of the obsolete Finnish verb nuolia; the Lappish word njallot is a corresponding case."



"Sarakka, who was also referred to as Sarag-Akka, had her place by the hearth. ... She even had her own temple" (J p. 21).



"Birth-givers drank Sarakka’s ... porridge after delivery together with other women present. ... In said porridge they put two wooden pegs, one split in two, on which three rings were hung. One pin was black, the other white. These pins were placed under the bow for two or three days. ... The porridge was not eaten until the drum had been consulted. Sarakka was offered ... bitches as sacrifice, but only women were allowed to eat them." (J p. 16)



"Children were re-baptized {re-named, a frequent event among, e.g., the Inuit} in Sarakka’s name". (J)

1:33-4 (pp. 89-90) Hora-galles






"Horagalles ... is represented ... with a double hammer. He was also called Horan-Galles, Horan-Orias, Hores-gudsk, and Attje-Gadze." (J p. 19)



"Galles, which is more correctly written kaalles .., means ‘hero’ ...; hurri [‘hazelhen’] (Tetrao Bonasias) got its name ... from the noise of its flight. ... Horan is a genitive form of Hora. ... . ... the word Orias has its closest root in Finnish uros which also means ‘respected man,’ ‘hero’ ... with which even the Lappish word Ores ‘male’ etc. is closely related."

1:41, 47 (pp. 93, 96) jubma; Finnish jumi






"Since the word jubma in Lappish means ‘roar’, ... Jubmel (God) is derived from this jubma."

{cf. the roaring of the sea supposedly audible in conch-shell : the conch-shell is worn by Aztec god Xolotl, who became an insect.}



"Finnish Jumina, Jumia, etc. ... all denote ... ‘loud noise.’ That is why the insect larva which in Swedish is called va:ggsmed ‘wallsmith’ (Calidium Violaceum) is called jumi in Finnish : it is because of its tapping sound in the wall." {So, would Jubmel be basically a noisy poltergeist knocking on the wall?}

{cf. the sound of knocking at doors in Iopolis (GM 56.d).} {Insects were dreamt (GM 66.e) by Aiakos, who assisted in building (GM 66.i) a wall. Aiakos judgeth (GM 66.k) in Tartaros (underground), much as the Tikopia wall-builder gods Fiti-kai-kere were exiled to ("MTPT", p. 239, citing Firth 1961:41) underground.}

GM = Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955.

"MTPT" = Susan McKinnon : "The Matrilateral Transference of Power in Tikopia". J OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY, vol. 99 (1990). pp. 227-64.,_No._3/The_matrilateral_transference_of_power_in_Tikopia_(Part_One),_by_S._McKinnon,_p_227-264/p1

Firth 1961 = Raymond Firth : History and Traditions of Tikopia. Wellington : The Polynesian Society.

1:52-4 (pp. 99-100) Olmai (hill) deities






"Leib Olmai was the god of hunting. He was offered prayers, ... kneeling, every morning and evening." (L)


"Leib Olmai was one of the Lappish deities ... . He was a god of shooting, and trapping of animals and birds." (Ganander, following Sidenius)



"The name Leib-Olmai comes from the Lappish word leipe (Alnus Incana Willd.), a tree ... . ... The juice of the boiled bark was used as medicine for a variety of skin ailments. When chewing the bark from this tree a brownish red juice emerges with which the Lapps used to treat the skins from the reindeer ... . The women would spray the juice of the chewed bark at their husbands when they had felled a bear and the dead bear was also to be sprayed with it. The juice from the chewed bark was also used to draw figures



on the famous divination drum, etc. Leib-Olmai, therefore, really means n... ‘alnus incanae vir.’ [p. 135, n. 30 : "Greyalderman"]"



"Tjatse olmah was a sea sprite who was the protector of the fish." (J p. 64) ... Ganander, following Sidenius, writes Kiase-Olmai, adding that he is the god of the fishery, who sends the fish to the hooks or the nets. ... According to Lindahl and O:hrling’s orthography, it is to be written tjase-olmai which means ‘water man’."

1:55, 57 (pp. 100-1) sanctification by cooking







"passe, ‘a kind of sacred thing’, which is known in all Lappmarks" : "The name simply comes from the Lappish word passet, which means ‘to fry.’ "

{Throughout Polynesia, anything which was already tapu (sacred) could be rendered noa (non-sacred) by cooking it; and cooked food was never offered to the deities.}



"Thus passe, which actually a present participle form of passet, came to mean ‘something one cooks and dedicates to the gods’."

1:59, 61-2, 66, 70 (pp. 102-6, 108) idols & seite






"They (these idols) were nothing more than ... birch ..., which they had turned up-side-down ... . The trunk ... represented a body with feet." (Ho,gstro,m 11:8)



"the stone seite itself consisted of mica schist (slate) with garnets inside as well as chunks of soapstone and hornblende."



"Some Lapps hold to the belief that these stones are alive and are able to move about." (Ho,gstro,m) {cf. "the Sailing Stones of Death Valley" ("SUSS")}



"If someone shoots squirrels, birds or other animals within the area belonging to the deity’s spirit, he must first take the feet, the head, the wings and

At the isle Oinone, winged "cupids hovered" (GM 66.c);



sacrifice them to the stone, the rest he gets to keep. ... The Lapps do this with bared heads, crawling on all four similarly to how they even otherwise go to offer sacrifices." (Ho,gstro,m 11:19)

and there "the islanders ... would crawl" (GM 66.c).



"the word seite ... is more likely related to the ancient Seid, which according to Scandinavian mythology means the art of witchcraft."

{Yes; and this Norse word /SEID-/ is likely related to Samskr.ta /SETu/ ‘bridge’, in the sense of Latin /pont-/ ‘bridge’ in /ponti-fec-/ ‘PONTiff’. The Rama Setu was (as described in the Rama-ayana) a PONToon-bridge, reminiscent to of the "mole" (causeway) constructed by (GM 81.c) the masons of Telamon for his speaking to his father Aiakos.}

"SUSS" =

1:71 (pp. 108-9) subterranean deities

p. 108

"The Lappish underground deities" : "Their saiwo, saiwo-olmah, saiwo-neidah, saiwo-lodde, saiwo-guolle and saiwo-sarwah all existed under the surface of the earth. ... These (netherworld) beings had sources of livelihood similar to their own and even domestic animals. ...

p. 109

Hence the Lapps considered saiwo-olmah, who lived inside the hills, a noble and rich people well versed in witchcraft and magic. In contrast, the Lapps considered themselves poor and wretched people who needed the protection of the former. The Lapps claimed to have visited saiwo often, interacted with saiwo-olmah, danced and yoiked (sung) with them, and seen their men, women and children. ... That is why every male Lapp owned from 10 to 12 of these saiwo beings as if as guardian angels." (J)

1:73-6, 78 (pp. 109-13) dreams & spirit-helpers; magical bird of evil omen






"Saiwo olmak ‘men of the hills’ were of service ... to those who had inherited them, bough them from other noaides, or acquired them through diligence in the art of divination. These saiwo-olmah gave advice on many occasions, both during sleep and through myran



(divination?) on the divination drum, with belts, ... stones, and horse bones." (L)



"the Lapps considered the inhabitants of saiwo ..., they formed unions with them whereby the Lapps sought help from saiwo. Saiwo were to become their guardian masters who were to give them luck in their endeavors such as for example in fishing, hunting, etc. They would save the lives of humans, help getting to know everything ... . In turn the Lapps promised to serve saiwo with their lives and property." (J p. 27)


"Saiwo was passed on as an inheritance, and they were bought and sold." (J p. 27)



"Every Lapp was to have in his saiwo three creatures who would be present any time he called for them;

first, a bird, which was called saiwo-lodde;

second, a fish or a serpent {more likely, an eel; there are no snakes in Lapland} which was called saiwo-guolle or guarms ..., and

third, a reindeer called saiwo-sarva ... .

All these animals were referred to with a common name saiwo-vuoign." (J p. 24)



"The birds (i.e., saiwo-lodde) were of variable sizes ... . ... These served their masters by accompanying them when they yoiked (sang magic songs), showed them the way when they traveled and gave them their hunting gear when they were going hunting. They brought them information from far-away regions, and helped them look after their reindeer and other



possessions. ... The noaide could also travel long distances on the back of a bird." (J p. 25)



"the Lappish noaides considered natural birds to be insignificant and, therefore, chose the semi-spiritual representatives of these birds in saiwo ... .



It was not difficult for the noaide to use these birds in his service since he often made trips to saiwo and stayed in close contact with the inhabitants of this realm. The saiwo-loddeh were thus not natural birds; they were brought from saiwo itself".


"Those who were surprised by the crowing of a magic bird was {were} said to be paikatallam, which means ‘in shit’, i.e., they were subject to the evil that was foreboded by the bird’s cawing. To prevent imminent misfortune one quickly consumed from refreshment as soon as one had opened one’s eyes, and this breakfast was called lodde-pitta, which means ‘bird bite’, i.e., the mouthful that was to thwart the ill-boding power of the bird."

1:79-80 (pp. 113-4) natural birds of omen






"a smaller bird of the hawk family, which was called gvuoddalvis, i.e., ‘the carrier’ in Lule Lapmark ... is reported to bring a message or presage a person’s death. This happens by the bird taking into its mouth something belonging to the dying person, for example ...



something from the clothes worn by the person whose death it forebodes. ... With such a remnant in his beak he flies to the graveyard and imitates the dying person’s voice with a lamenting sound. Someone who hears this sound will not only recognize the voice ..., but the bird can be made to land if one asks what she is carrying. It is, however, ... advisable to crouch under a thicket or a fallen tree and let the bird land on it."



"The cuckoo bird (Cuculus Canorus) ... is believed to forebode a person’s death if he sits down on a Lappish hut to call, and if this happens on an empty stomach. ... The loon (Columb. Septemtrionalis) is also an ill-boding bird if he gets an opportunity to call from above one whose stomach is empty."

1:81 (pp. 114-5) fish as helping-spirit

p. 114

"There is also a saiwo-guolle who shall guard a noaide’s life when he is off to Jabma Aimo. Namma-guolle ‘name fish" is a kind of fish-like sprite, who protects a person’s name. When something bad happens to a person he is to

p. 115

be baptized anew with the magic name of his grandfather or father and namma-guolle is the protector of that name." (L)


"Saiwo-guolle ... protects the soul of the Lappish noaide when he journeys to Jabma Aimo, either to fetch {the dead soul of} someone from his family, father or mother, ... or ... to bring back a sick persons soul." (Sidenius, according to Ganander)

1:84 (p. 117) how wasps are enchanted

"I have, however, seen with my own very eyes how wasps are enchanted. ... He recited or mumbled something ... . But the end sum was that the wasps became docile like lambs. He tore the wasp nest to pieces without the wasps doing him any harm. They crawled on their legs unable to fly. ... he insisted that it happened through enchanting alone."

1:89-90 (pp. 120-1) holy water; sea-sprites






"Saiwo-tjatse was a holy water that ran from saiwo." (J p. 29)


"In the beginning when the noaide wishes to get the saiwo-olmah beings in his service, he first strengthens himself with saiwo tjatse" (L).



"Mountain women initiated and strengthened noaides with saiwo tjatse" (Sidenius according to Ganander).



"most Lapps on the Swedish side have imagined the inhabitants in saiwo as a kind of sjo, rao ‘sea sprites’ ... . Consequently many lakes have been named after saiwo". {In Gothic, /SAIWs/ hath the meaning ‘lake’ ("S"). So, would the Germanic word be borrowed from the variety of Lappish used in Sweden?}

"S" =

1:93-4, 96 (pp. 122-4) Lappish kadniha = Finnish maahiset; a sighting






"In Lule Lappmark and parts of Pite Lappmark people still know a kind of underground beings that in Lappish are called kadnihah which corresponds to saiwo-neidah, i.e., ‘saiwo’s maidens’, known on the Norwegian side. ...



Kadnihah are ... a kind of people living underground who occasionally reveal themselves to people in red dress. They have long hair which reaches down to their waist ... . ... People have even learned their song which is called kadnihah-vuolle."



[instance of a sighting in Lule Lappmark beside Lake Parkijaur] "It so happened that, while he was walking up a hill, he suddenly became faint and fell as if in trance during which he heard a most beautiful Lappish song. Immediately thereafter he saw two kadnihah neidah, i.e., underground maidens, wonderfully beautiful, clad in the ... red dress. The maidens disappeared a few minutes later into a crevice in the hill".



"In the Tornio river region the Finns’ underground beings are called maahiset {cf. the MAnHaSET tribe in ManhattaN} (plur of maahinen). ... Maahinen comes from maa ‘earth’ and means ‘earthly’ or ‘located in the earth.’ ... The following is an example of this :

... an old settler in the village of Kuttainen ... in Tornio Lappmark had ... gone to a fishing lake named Paitasja:rvi ... . ... . ... two girls in red dressed appeared, came quite near him, and invited him ... . ... Then the two maidens disappeared"

1:95, 99, 105 (pp. 124, 126, 130) spectral horde with reindeer; haunting by phantom reindeer; werewolf






[instance of a sighting nigh Tjaomotis in Lule Lappmark] "the whimper of reindeer herds set in motion was heard. ... There she saw the underground horde in the moonlight ... . ... She immediately wrapped herself in a lambskin fell [skin] outside and ... promised penance and repentance".



"There is an islet in Jerisja:rwi, a large and good fishing lake ... . ... . ... they all at once heard the clanking of reindeer bells ... . ... One of the fishermen then remarked that ... already some time earlier there had been oknytt on the little islet. (N.B. Oknytt is what is said in Westerbotten about little hauntings that can be heard. ...) They were thus reindeer bells from underground."



"the whole man was transformed into a wolf and human beings in the guise of a wolf were considered ... a piellokis, i.e., ‘bell wolf’ or ‘a wolf with a bell around its neck’."

"a Lapp here in Enontekio: was about to become a wolf. He had to run naked ... in the middle of the coldest winter. Upon arrival in Maunu he threw himself in bed between a man and his wife. "Had I not gotten to lie between you," he said, "I would have turned into a wolf.""

1:102-4, 107 (pp. 127-9, 131) human midwife assisting at childbirth amongst underground folk; Rip van Winkle & the troll-woman; sat upon by nightmare-hag






[instance in Lule] "One night a peasant woman ... was called upon ... to assist ... at childbirth. ... when they had walked a short distance ... they came to the end of some stairs and soon they stood in a house underground where a woman lay suffering in childbed. The delivery proceeded well".



"If one gets a call to serve as midwife (which happens quite often) one must help the woman in distress but not accept food and drink as it will then become difficult to come back."



[in Skellefteao] "trollka:ring ‘troll woman’ " : "An old soldier ... had once lost his way during a squirrel hunt ... . Finally he came upon an old cottage ... . ... Now a trollka:ring enters the cottage and asks the soldier : "What is your name?" "My name is Self." ...

{cf. the name /Ou-dei-/ ‘Nobody’ (GM 170.c)}


But the trollka:ring said when she left : "Self recognized me, ... and Self shall sleep until next year." ... . ... the soldier lay down to sleep.

{The kyklops Poluphemos "prayed aloud ... : ‘Grant ... that if my enemy ... ever returns home, he may arrive late ...!’ " (GM 170.f)}


When he awoke ... he found his way back to his people. Only then did he learn that he had been gone for a whole year."

{"When Odysseus awoke he" returned home only after "having taken so many years" (GM 171.a).}



"In Lappish it is called ta:ddalmis, i.e., ‘nightmare’ and those ... are said to be ta:ddatallat, ‘be pressed down’, ‘haunted by nightmare.’ ... Some declare that it happens while they are awake. {The "old hag syndrome" (of so-called "sleep paralysis") is an event occurring immediately upon awaking.} They claim to see clearly and to recognize the wretched witch, how she enters through the door and sits astride the person." {I once (in T.P., MD) saw a spectral woman (whom I recognized as the one I had left in Ch., IL) on my side of the apartment-door; she walked to me and touched me. (This, however, did not involve sleep-paralysis.)}

1:109 (p. 133) one-eyed supernaturals

"the Lapps’ pa:dnakjunne [‘one with a dog’s muzzle’ {cf. kunokephaloi (‘hound-headeds’), mentioned by, e.g., Herodotos as denizens of Libya}], who even has only one eye in his forehead."

1:110 (pp. 133-4) abode for souls of the dead

p. 133

"The Lapps recognized two states after death.

One was the happy state and was called ... Jabma-Aimo ...;

the other was called Mubban Aimo, Rut-Aimo, Fudnos Aimo" (J p. 30)


"At a certain distance under ground is the realm of the dead, Jabma Aimo. There the dead shall receive a new body ... . They will receive the same might and reputation they enjoyed while living.

But those who are deep down in the earth or closer to the abyss stay in Rota Aimo." (L)

p. 134

"All the dead in Jabma Aimo are equally as powerful as they were in life and are given a new body in place of the old one"


L = Leem : Beskrivelske over Finnmarkens Lapper. Kio/benhavn 1767.

J = Jessen : Afhandling on ... Lappers Hedenske Religion. Kio/benhavn 1767.

Christfrid Ganander : Mythologia fennica. Aobo 1789.

Ho,gstro,m : Beskrifning... lydande Lappmarker. Stockholm 1747.

Strong = Hebrew & Aramaic Dictionary of Bible Words.

Lars Levi Laestadius (transl. from the Swedish by Bo:rje Va:ha:ma:ki) : Fragments of Lappish Mythology. Aspasia Bks, Beaverton (ON), 2002.