Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus 1, pp. 1-28

Codex Borgianus Mexicanus & Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus 1


C.B.M., pp. 18 lower to 18 upper


C.V.M.1, pp. 2 upper right to 4 upper left

18 low

Temple [of Owl, of Ocelot, and of Skull-over-Bone]; foaming jar

2 u.r.

year 5 Temple; foaming jar

19 low

one-half-black-and-grey-striped tree, surrounded by white wall;Wind-god pointing

2 l.r.

black-and-grey-striped mountain, on base surrounded by white band; god 7 Wind pointing upward

20 low

plaited-headbanded goddess, wearing red-patterned skirt, and pointing

3 l.l.

turbaned goddess, wearing red-patterned skirt, and pointing upward

21 low


3 u.l.

two ballcourts

21 up

broken tree collapsing, with Bird

3 u.r.

undercut striped bent mountain (Culhuacan), with Eagle

20 up

one serpent swallowing another serpent; rain-god descending from sky

3 l.r.

knotted-serpent-haired goddess, surrounded with colored clouds (Tamoanchan)

" "

two canals of water; ocelot vomiting blood; porcupine vomiting blood

4 l.l.

pool of water; ocelot-skin-wearing god; cave-in-mountain (den of animal?)

19 up

inset with eyen is another broken tree collapsing, with Eagle

4 u.l.

inset-with-gems striped mountain; day 10 Eagle

18 up

fleshless-jawed god holding bag

4 u.r.

beast-headed god holding bag

" "

black-and-white-striped bird descending from multi-pointed astronomical emblem

4 l.r.

black-and-white-striped-bird-skin-wearing god at temple of multi-pointed astronomical emblem

" "

self-beheading red-striped man; black eagle descending


four temples (one of head-and-torso of red man) in mountain-range ; four temples (one of blue bird) above

" "

white container

6 r. col.

white plant [on crennelated rampart]

" "

teeth-baring goddess holding in each hand a knife-blade

8 2nd col.

snapping-turtle-suited deity holding in each hand a knife

written before daybreak Wedn Oct 21 2015


C.B.M., pp. 25-46




water flowing from rain-gods

1 l.l.

curling wave


pot foaming over, having behind it 2 variegated serpents

1 u.l.

pot foaming over, having behind it 2 variegated serpents


white flags to the sides of black god

1 u.r.

snow-topped white mountain beside black god


piercing disks

1 l.r.

forcing open the ground


bag-holding entwined dragons within rayed-disk design

2 l.l.

bag-holding knotted-serpents-surmounted god over spiderweb design


pointed summit atop disk attached to element containing tau-shape

2 u.l.

pointed summit atop disk attached to base containing pi-shaped doorway

25 u.r.

god having blades as lips

2 u.r.

god having blades as lips

25 l.r.

blue-ringed-eyed god having vertical front extension of upper lip

2 l.r.

blue-ringed-eyed god having vertical front extension of upper lip

25 l.l.

god having curved back section of head

3 l.l.

god having curved back section of head

25 u.l.

blue-masked god

3 u.l.

blue-eyebrowed god

31 up

black gods with veils in front of their faces

6 l. col.

men with their faces pressed against their arms

" "

two red skulls regurgitating red-skull water-deities

7 2nd col.

red plant (?) floating (?) on water

" "

4 black layers of wind

7 3rd col.

clouds upon black-roofed temple

31 low

red head looking upward from starry red caelestial region

head, having red feathers (?) protruding from eyen, looking upward from striped region

" "

two skulled-headed maize-goddesses; goddess seated on double-headed (each head with skull -- a maize-goddess? -- peering from mouth) serpent

7 4th col.

red-blossoming plants; forward-pointing (at her own calendar-name 9 Reed? [cf. Bon serpent-in-reed symbol of one of the Bardo stages]) two-snake haired goddess


The two main goddess on this p. are both "blind". {Do they share a single eye, as do the Graiai sistren?}

8 1st col.

Temple of [Single] Eye

31 low

located at the gap for egress from this layer of the cosmos : a twisted-bodied goddess

8 2nd col.

having footprints leading to it over a layered ground : an herb, perhaps intended as Malinalli ('Twisted')


[scissor-headed] deity seated in a tub which is full of knife-blades;

8 2nd col

striped curved mountain which is resting upon knife-blades;

within separate flint-enclosed chambres, two eagle-suited gods

along with flint-inset mountain, another mountain whence is suspended, by its talons, an Eagle

32 low

in site of skull-headed goddess : man escaping from betwixt scissor-blades {cf. scissors held by goddess Chinna-masta ('Split-Brain')}

8 3rd col.

man sending smoke-signals by periodically removing blanket from smoldring fire in fire-pit {cf. steam escaping from top of head of Stripe-Eye in CBM, p. 38?}


White Deer carrying sun;

8 4th col.

Deer on steep striped mountain {so steep that only a Pronghorn could climb it}


man facing reader and having atop his head tree tufts (one of them including a vertical);


mountain-range with several peaks (one of them facing reader) having three verticals atop it;

god of multi-stemmed plant

(1st row) multi-pronged red plant (?)

well (or round pool) with men (one of them red) emerging from it;

(2nd row) curling wave (with droplets) having red man within it;

blue-and-red succulent-plant

(3rd row) blue-and-red waterfowl

coyote-headed god howling;

(4th row) man singing chevroned song

Swooping Eagle;


(4th row) blue bird;

golden-bellied Bent Red Serpent

(4th row) golden-edged red triangle



11 l. col.



red-speckled white cords is held by its ends by two deities (male and female)

11 r. col.

white cord is stretched by two men each holding one of its ends


two square (one of them hollow) starry square regions

12 l. col.

two scalloped-hollowed starry square regions


old god looking upward

" "

skull looking upward


Tlaltecuhtli emitting starry darkness from open jaws

" "

Tlaltecuhtli holding darkness between jaws


goddess holding one open hand upwards


two plant-goddesses, each pointing upward with one hand


rainbow-serpent passing through crenellated ring

12 r. col.

crenellated-topped temples


god pouring mug of water onto Stripe-Eye's head

" "

man pouring jug of water onto own head


two human-headed (each wearing a crocodile-head helmet) serpent-gods conversing within square

13 l. col.

two gods (one wearing a crocodile-head helmet) conversing while standing in angle (in corner?)


skeletal god beside white-cobblestone paving

" "

bones beside white pattern of lozenges


six gods, each holding a shield with spears

" "

two instances of shield with spears

39 low

each holding two blades (one in each hand) : four deities

13 r. col.

each holding two blades (one in each hand) : a woman and an anthropoid beast


ballcourt surrounded by starry darkness : within it a

" "


red death-deity seated on dead person upon red tub-seat

" "

portable (with handles) tub-seat [toilet for the sick?]


holding herald's wand (?) :black-and-grey-striped faced skeletal god with fleshless lower jaw;

14 r. col.

each holding herald's wand (?) : three black-with-grey-highlights-faced gods, each with fleshless lower jaw



15 r. col.

two temples of, and each containing (as altar? -- cf. antient Levantine spoked altars), a gyre


in pool of water : conch with

16 l. col.

in pool of water : water-snail.

emerging from it, a floppy-footed black god

black god


black god; grey goddess

16 r. col.

black god; grey god


hummingbirds feeding on [honey gathered by] a grey bat;

17 r. col.

bird feeding bird;

spiky disk;

spiky disk on peak of mountain-range

striped tree growing out of heart [cf. tepe-yollotl 'mountain-heart'];

18 l. col.

two trees, each rooted in a different peak of mountain-range

dismembred man : separate head and leg

18 r. col.

dismembred man : separate head and leg


skull-headed warrior atop layer of human skulls;

19 l. col.

hunan skulls atop temple of skull

two gods churning a vat full of white milk;

20 l. col.

god standing on buoys floating on layered white substance (cream, curds, whey?);

man under net [to protect him from mosquitos?];

" "

motion-glyph on cord-frame

black-and-white pattern of triangles on platform


black-and-white checkerboard temple; black-and-white checkerboard peak of mountain-range


god being boiled, but living through this [allegory for boiling cacao?];

22 r. col.

heap of brown seeds (cacao?)


god being fire-drilled (in chalchihuitl) in order to generate (from the smoke) progeny {Cf. Ven.u, whose thigh was churned in order to generate progeny : Nis.ada the black midget, and afterwards Pr.thu along with his wife Arcis. The meaning of the name /Ulmuka/ of Ven.u's paternal grandfather is (SBhP, p. 85) 'Torch'. The meaning of the name /Anga/ of Ven.u's father is (loc. cit.) 'Limb'. The meaning of the name /Ven.u/ is 'Bamboo'.}


Cf. torch carried by hound-headed god on CVM, p. 20, left column.

Cf. portions of human bodies in succulent plants (for "plant-limbs") on CVM, p. 20, right column.

Cf. pilaster (similar to reed/bamboo) on CVM, p. 22, left column.

For the black midget. cf. the black person on CVM, p. 22, right column.


/Arcis/ is 'Ray of Luminance'.

23 l. col.

Ray of luminance extending from one caelestial body (sun) to another caelestial body (planet).


Svayam-bhuva Manu became the calf of the earth-cow, which was thereupon milked by Ven.u's son Pr.thu (SBhP, p. 86). {But Vaivasvata Manu was calf for Pr.thu according to Atharvan Veda 8:10:22-29, cited in OEHM, p. 322.}


{/Svayam-bhuva/ is cognate with /Hephaistos/ (< */Swe-bhawisto-/). Hephaistos made a "Golden Throne for Hera" ("OHL") the "cow-eyed" ("CHC2") goddess.} {Vivasvant may = Hellenic [W]I[h]a[w]on (the original of /Ion/, which is a contracted form -- Liddell & Scott) < */Wisawon/ ('wide Savana').}


"In a Cora myth, the sky-dwelling Old One {Ueue-teotl = Xiuh-tecuhtli} ... beat Opossum into little pieces ...; the pieces ... fell over the edge {of Heaven} too. ... The Cora also say that Opossum reconstituted himself after falling to earth." (MM, s.v. "Opossums", p. 220)


As for the infant Hephaistos, (DCM, p. 191ab) "Zeus grasped him by the foot and threw him down from [Olumpos]. ... he hit the ground in the island [191b] of Lemnos, and was ... by the Sintians ... restored to life".

(MM, s.v. "Opossums", p. 219) "Lo`pez Austin [1993] points out that [they] ... discover corn {maize}; ... are associated with ... maguey". {The doubleness ascribed to Xolotl may be due to the fact that "Females have two uteri and two vaginas ... . Males have a bifurcated penis." (MM, s.v. "Opossums", p. 218)}


"He turned himself into the young maize with two stalks. This is called "Xolotl of the Field." ... Like so he turned himself into the double maguey. Its name is "Maguey Xolotl."" (MM, p. 104, quoting from Read 1998, p. 49-58, translated from Sahagu`n : Florentine Codex, lib. 7, pt. 8, cap. 2:3-9).

At the shrine of Sthan.u, "the wind in the sky" warned against Ven.u, until :


Xolotl fled from Ehecatl 'the wind' (MM, p. 103).

the "great sin" of Ven.a's was "destroyed" (Skanda Puran.a 7:1:336, cited in OEHM, p. 325) by a rite performed at Gos.-pada ("cow's footprint").

24 l. col.

disk of circling footprints is located on surface of split water (two instances) {The rite is Gavam Ayana : the 'cows's walk' (performed also by Hellenic cow-transmogrified heroine I[w]oi).}

"Ven.a's ... sin derived from his grandfather, Death." (Padma Puran.a 2:27, cited in OEHM, p. 328).

24 r. col.

Ehecatl graspeth conical hat worn by red-speckled skull (i.e., by Mictlan-tecuhtli 'Lord of the Place of the Dead').

"Ven.a ... told that ... mixing castes led to ... his intention" (Br.hat-dharma 3:13-14, cited in OEHM, p. 327).

25 l. col.

two women mix (stir) drinks with rods

(Maha-bharata 12:56, cited in OEHM, p. 323) An-anga ('Bodiless') was the paternal grandfather, and

25 r. col.

Torsoless god (consisting of head only, atop jar of serpents [should be leeches?]). {Cf. Trokhilos, leech-eating (according to Herodotos 2:68 -- Liddell & Scott) plover.}

Ati-BALa ('Beyond Strength') was the father, of Ven.a. {Etruscan version is (DCM, s.v. "Metapontus") Meta-bon ('Beyond the Bridge' [Etruscan /bon/ = Latin /pont-/ 'bridge'] -- i.e., beyond land-bridge Lektonia?).}

26 l. col.

Trumpets {invented by the Etruscan, Tursenos (DCM, s.v. "Hegeleus")} : bridge is crossed to musicians (MM, "Tezcatlipoca", p. 251). {Son of Trokhilos is (DCM, s.v. "Trochilus", p. 459b) Su-BOuLeus : cf. also the SU-BALA-as`Wa-s in the Puran.a-s.}

'Good Trick' heroine Su-nitha smote the 'Good Conch' ascetic Su-s`ankha (Padma Puran.a 2:29, cited in OEHM, p. 328).

26 r. col.

two instances of helix-of-maizecobs (conchs being likewise helical).

In order to be purified, "having gently touched", Ven.u bathed in the Sarasvati River (Vamana Samhita 26-27, cited in OEHM, p. 326).

27 l. col.

man dancing in water {This would be NR.T[Y]a-raja, later identified with Rudra; but originally perhaps cognate with Eddic /NoRTI/ ('north Wind') = Hellenic Boreas.}

The political states (such as, Magadha )were instituted by Ven.a (Maha-bharata 12:59:118, cited in OEHM, p. 330). [The etymon is */Maghadha/, cognate with Strong's 4719 /Maqqedah/, from Strong's 5348 /naqod/ "to mark (by puncturing or branding)".]

28 1st-3rd coll.

goddesses named, with the device or design peculiar to each : such devices or designs, being quite idiosyncratic, are ideal for indicating the particular female artist as originatrix of a peculiar work of art (much as puncturing or branding are employed to designate property-ownership in non-artistic commercial contexts)

Dyau ('Sky') stole, from Vasis.t.ha, the r.s.i-turtle Kas`yapa's daughter the cow Nandini ('Enjoyment') for ('as Victrix') Jinavati (Maha-bharata 1:93, cited in OEHM, p. 332).

28 4th col.

ocelotl-skin-wearing god under starry blue sky {Cf. dream-travel of fish-god Peiren's daughter (DCM, s.v. "Io", p. 232a) goddess Ioi (who afterwards became a cow) to lake Lerne of Zeus (etymologically /Dyau/).}

SBhP = Purnendu Narayana Sinha : A Study of the Bhagavata Purana : or, Esoteric Hinduism. Benares, 1901.

OEHM = Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty : The Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology. Berkeley : Univ of CA Pr, 1976.

"OHL" = "Olympios Hephaistos Loves".

"CHC" = "Cult Hera Cult".

Lo`pez Austin 1993 = Alfredo Lo`pez Austin (transl. by Bernard Ortiz de Montellano & Thelma Ortiz de Montellano) : The Myths of the Opossum ... of Mesoamerican Mythology. Albuquerque : Univ of NM Pr.

MM = Kay Almere Read & Jason J. Gonza`lez : Mesoamerican Mythology. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara (CA), 2000.

DCM = Pierre Grimal (transl. by A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop) : The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Blackwell Publ, Oxford, 1986.

Read 1998 = Kay Almere Read : Time and Sacrifice in the Aztec Cosmos. Bloomington : IN Univ Pr.

[written shortly after midnight Wedn Oct 21 2015 (CVM1, p. 1), before daybreak Wedn Oct 21 2015 (CVM1, pp. 2-3u.l.; and also CBM, pp. 18-21); after daybreak Wedn Oct 21 2015 (CVM1, pp. 6-22); and Thur Oct 22 2015 (CVM1, pp. 23-28)]

Where Hesiodos mentioned the Kakoi of Lerne, this could refer to Carmenta's foretelling, at Pallanteus (DCM, s.v. "Carmenta", p. 89b), concerning the three-headed Cacus (known to Solinos 1:8 as an ally of Marsuas; and Diodoros Sikelos 4:21 as Kakios, who had a staircase ("scalae") at his "ATRium", cited at DCM, s.v. "Cacus", p. 82a). The name /MARSuas/ here could refer to the MARSi on the river ATeRnus; if so, this would be the myth supporting (through the Atrati black horses pulling the chariot of the eclipsed sun, according to Propertius 4:4:34 -- LD, p. 192b) the Social War of Italicum versus Roma. According to Aurelius Victor (cited in C:Z1, p. 482), the slayer of Cacus (thief of cattle belonging to Geryones) was Re-caranus ('Again a Caranus', i.e., redincarnate : /Karanos/ being a Makedonian (LD, p. 290b) name aequivalent to Hellenic /korone/ 'shearwater', a bird closely related to the [in Inuit mythology] storm-boding "stormy petrel", whence the myth of heroine Koronis's requaesting Zeus's manifesting of himself as levin); but Verrius Flaccus named him Garanus ('Crane'), aequatable with the three cranes depicted in Gallic art as standing on Tri-garanus the bull, who may have ("HB3H", "BB3H") three horns, "the bull's three horns", however, being in Persia associated instead with ("APs-E", p. 240) "ravens". Though the "three horned cap" be an article of As^s^urian regalia (PATD, p. 104), and although abnormal African antelopes many occasionally sport three horns ("3HAAP"), among mammals only in the three-horned Baringo and Kilimanjaro (RAM 2[1907]:95) and Baringo (GAA, p. 358) subspecies of giraffe is a triplet of horns usual and natural. [written Oct 22-23 2015]

LD = Lewis & Short : A Latin Dictionary. 1879.

C:Z1 = Arthur B. Cook : Zeus : a Study in Ancient Religion. Vol. 1 : Zeus : God of the Bright Sky. Cambridge, 1914.




"APs-E" = Muriel Debie` : "Apocalyse of Pseudo-Ezra". In :-David Richard Thomas & Barbara Roggema (edd.) : Christian-Muslim Relations, a Bibliographical History. Vol. 1 : "600-900". Brill : Leiden & Boston, 2009. pp. 239-41.

PATD = Jesse Acuff : Project Apostasy : the Development and Propagation of the Trinitarian Doctrine. AuthorHouse, Bloomington (IN), 2008.



GAA = Richard Lydekker : The Game Animals of Africa. London : Rowland Ward, 1908.

main bibliography :-